stimulants - DRUG CLASS CNS STIMULANTS 1 Nicotine 2...

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DRUG CLASS: CNS STIMULANTS 1. Nicotine 2. Caffeine 3. Cocaine 4. Amphetamines 5. Designer Drugs Nicotine Tobacco use is considered the greatest public health problem. Percentage of cigarette smokers is steadily declining Nicotine Tobacco dependence is a pediatric problem: Most smokers 1st time use is before high school graduation Most adolescent smoker are addicted to nicotine & report they want to quit, but are unable to do so Nicotine Preparations The leaves of the tobacco plant are cured and prepared in different ways, depending on the intended use of the tobacco. Leaves dried, then ground Forms of Tobacco products: Cigarettes: optimize the addictive effects of nicotine because smoke allow rapid absorption to the brain. The short lived psychoactive effects lead smokers to repeatedly dose themselves Smokeless tobacco: Chewing tobacco TOBACCO SMOKE COMPONENTS 1
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NICOTINE: the addictive agent; extremely toxic. A dose of about 30 mg can be fatal, cigarette contains 15-20 mg of nicotine, only a fraction is absorbed by the smoke 0.1 mg to1.2 mg per cigarette smokers can control the intake of nicotine considerably by adjusting their smoking technique. TAR is not a single ingredient; it is a dark sticky combination of hundreds of chemicals including poisons and cancer-causing substances. Standard tar yields of Canadian cigarettes vary from CARBON MONOXIDE (CO) the poisonous emission from automobile engines is also formed when tobacco is burned. CO in smoke replaces the oxygen in red blood cells, forming carboxyhemoglobin (COHb). NICOTINE PHARMACOKINETICS Routes of Administration: small lipid and water soluble molecule inhalation: lungs absorb; within 10 sec nicotine reaches the brain buccal (sublingigual): smokeless tobacco: peak plasma level in about 15 minutes nicotine gum: peak plasma level in about 30 minutes transdermal: peak plasma level in about 5-12 hours nicotine inhaler : NICOTINE PHARMACOKINETICS Distribution: quickly distributed, rapidly penetrating the brain, appearing in all body fluids Metabolism: the Liver metabolizes 80-90% of nicotine, not dependent on the delivery There are two primary active metabolites: cotinine & nicotine-1'-N-oxide Excretion: by the kidneys 2
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1/2 is about 2 hours The pH of the urine is essential in determining whether nicotine will be reabsorbed Effects of Smoking increase in heart rate drop in skin temperature respiration rate is increased. in novice smokers, diarrhea and vomiting may occur Long-term effects Lung cancer (related to 90% of all lung cancer cases). Cancers of the mouth, throat, colon, pancreas, bladder, kidneys, stomach, and cervix 75% of chronic bronchitis cases and 80% of emphysema cases.
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