Topic2 - II.HOWDODRUGSHAVETHEIREFFECT? (MECHANISMOFACTION)

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II.  HOW DO DRUGS HAVE THEIR EFFECT???      (MECHANISM OF ACTION)                                                                                        1. MORPHOLOGY OF THE NEURON:    a specialized cell in the nervous system A)  soma  (or cell body)  B)  dendrites   C)  axon   2.   FUNCTION OF THE NEURON:   COMMUNICATION What makes neuron different from other cells?   Electricity I.   " RESTING STATE " inside outside Conduction: passive: concentration gradient force electrostatic pressure:  
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active: sodium-potassium pump The are five main ions that determine the electrical "state" of a neuron.   1.  Large protein ions 2.  Sodium ions (NA + ) 3.  Chloride ions (Cl - ) 4.  Potassium ions (K + )                                 4 5.  Calcium (Ca ++ )               3 II.  ACTION POTENTIA L.   1. initial depolarization        2 2. threshold value   1 3. rapid depolarization         5 4.  Repolarization  5.  refractory period  Drugs may affect any part of this process (mechanisms of action) 1.   Effect the properties of the membrane 2.  Altering the structure of channel in the membrane. 3.  Alter the balance of ions on the two sides of the membrane.   III. COMMUNICATION  BETWEEN NEURONS- THE  SYNAPSE  : The voice:  neurotransmitter: 1.  vesicles  2.  release is Ca++ dependent 3.  receptors 4.  electrical stimulation 5.  it can be blocked 
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6.  terminating  the action 7.  Autoreceptors exist other messengers: neuromodulator:  any substance that affect the process of neurotransmission neurohormone:  have to get into bloodstream b4 they affect neurotransmission Nonsynpatic diffuse neurotransmission:  There are gaseous substances that are  released during neurotransmission but not found in vesicles, don’t fit description of a  neurotransmitter RECEPTORS (the ear):  protein structures on neuronal membranes adapted to receive  neurotransmitter molecules.  Binding initiates a chain of events that  allow ion channels  to open.    There are two general classes of receptors: FAST RECEPTORS  - ionotropic SLOW RECEPTORS  – metabotropic receptor - Second messengers IV.  TYPES OF DRUGS (BASED ON RECEPTOR FUNCTION): Agonists:  Antagonists:   Competitive antagonist:   Noncompetitive antagonist: 
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Inverse agonist: 
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Neurochemical  MECHANISMS  of Drug action: Process: Agonist Antagonist 1. Synthesis increase decrease 2. release promote inhibit 3. autoreceptors block activate 4. post-synaptic receptors activate block 5. deactivation block re-uptake or degredation 3.       HOW DO DRUGS KNOW WHERE TO GO?     1. The Central Nervous system:
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Topic2 - II.HOWDODRUGSHAVETHEIREFFECT? (MECHANISMOFACTION)

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