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TOPIC 1 - TOPIC 1 Pharmacology Psychopharmacology What is a...

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TOPIC 1: Pharmacology & Psychopharmacology What is a Drug? The traditional way is to define a drug as any substance that alters the physiology of the body. This definition includes food and nutrients, which are not usually considered drugs. A substance that alters the physiology of the body but is not a food or nutrient. Psychoactive or psychotrophic drugs are drugs that influence physiology and then behavior. Pharmacology & Psychopharmacology What is Pharmacology : The study of drugs concerned with information on the effects on biological systems What is Psychopharmacology : The study of drugs on behavior (cognition, emotion, motivation, learning, etc...) Pharmacology & Psychopharmacology The effect of drug is dependent on a number of factors such as: 1) Route of administration 2) Previous/current drug history 3) Age or physiological state (disease) of the organism Pharmacology & Psychopharmacology WHY DO PEOPLE USE DRUGS??? a) Religious practices b) Alter moods/state (stimulation, relieve boredom, pleasure etc, avoid withdrawal) c) Social interaction d) Self-medicate: Dual diagnosis ** THE PROBLEM OF DRUG ABUSE IS AS OLD AS CIVILIZATION Pharmacology & Psychopharmacology
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Is drug abuse different today? YES: a. We have all psychoactive drugs available in our culture b. The active ingredient in the natural plant products have been isolated c. Synthetic derivatives have increased potency d. User have devised new methods of administration Pharmacology & Psychopharmacology Factor that influence drug abuse: * social context * genetic factors * attitudes * expectation * previous history of reinforcement Some Basic Pharmacology Describing Doses Milligrams: 1/1000 of a gram Doses given in accordance to body weight Some Basic Pharmacology Dose-response relationships: The relationship between the amount of drug an the degree of response change. Dose Response Curves Some Basic Pharmacology Describing Dosages ED 50 The Median effective dose The dose that is effective in 50% of the subjects tested. LD 50 Median lethal dose
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The dose that was lethal in 50% of the subjects tested. Some Basic Pharmacology Results of a hypo-thetical experiment using 12 groups. One curve shows the percentage of animals in each group that lost consciousness; the other curve shows the percentage that died at each dose.
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Some Basic Pharmacology Drug Safety Therapeutic Index TI = LD 50/ ED 50 a) high = safe b) low = danger c) depends on therapeutic use Some Basic Pharmacology Potency and Effectiveness The extent of the drugs effect Potency Differences in the ED 50 Effectiveness Differences in the maximum effect that drugs will produce at any dose
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