Exam Three Study Guide

Exam Three Study Guide - Exam Three Study Guide Chapter 12...

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Exam Three Study Guide Chapter 12 Gender role orientations: Communality vs. agency Communality : an orientation that emphasizes connectedness to others and includes traits of emotionality and sensitivity to others (the heart of the feminine gender role) Barren & Cohen (biological): Females brain hardwired for empathy; men hardwired for power Agency : an orientation toward individual action and achievement that emphasizes traits of dominance, independence, assertiveness, and competitiveness (central aspect of the masculine gender role) Eagley’s social-role hypothesis: What is it & It suggests that differences in the roles that women and men play in society do a lot to create and maintain gender-role stereotypes. what does it suggest about male/female differences? As Eagly’s social-role hypothesis suggests, we must adopt a contextual perspective on psychological differences between males and females. The Child: Acquiring gender stereotypes Young children begin to learn society’s gender stereotypes around the time they become aware of their basic gender identities. Judith Blakemore showed pictures of toys to 3-11 yr olds and asked them whether boys or girls would usually play w each toy. o Youngest children (3 yrs) knew that girls, but not boys, play w Barbie dolls and vice versa for GI Joes. o They also recognized that boys and girls differ in clothes and hairstyles. o By age 5, boys hold more gender stereotypical toy preferences than girls. In other research, girls as young as 24 months understood which activities were masculine and which ones were feminine.
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o Boys, however, did not show the same understanding until at least 6months later. Even by 18 months of age, girls can match photos of gender-stereotypic toys w faces of boys or girls. So children, at least girls, are aware of gender stereotypes at an early age. Over the next several years, children acquire considerably more “knowledge” abt the toys and activities considered appropriate for girls or boys. Gary Levy et al asked 4-6 yr olds whether men or women would be better in two masculine-stereotyped occupations and two feminine-stereotypes occupations. o Children believed that men would be more competent than women as mechanics and pilots whereas women would make better designers and secretaries. o Boys and girls also expressed positive emotions at the thought of growing up and holding gender-stereotypic occupations. o They reacted negatively when asked to consider holding gender-counter stereotypic occupations. Robin Banerjee and Vicki Lintern tested the rigidity of 4-9 yr olds gender- stereotypic beliefs w four brief stories in which characters had either gender- stereotypic interests or gender-counterstereotypic interests. Children were then asked whether the target child would like to play w dolls, play football, skip, or play w toys guns. o
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This note was uploaded on 11/01/2010 for the course PSY 333D taught by Professor Reeves during the Spring '08 term at University of Texas.

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Exam Three Study Guide - Exam Three Study Guide Chapter 12...

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