Module 1 Terms

Module 1 Terms - Lauren Fitzsimmons Organizational...

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Lauren Fitzsimmons Organizational Psychology Greenberg and Baron Module 1 Terms Organization : A structured social system consisting of groups and individuals working together to meet some agreed upon objectives. Organizational behavior : the field that seeks increased knowledge of all aspects of behavior in organizational settings through the use of the scientific method. Behavioral Sciences : Fields such as psychology and sociology that seek knowledge of human behavior and society through the use of the scientific method. Theory X : A traditional philosophy of management suggesting that most people are lazy and irresponsible, and will work hard only when forced to do so. Theory Y : A philosophy of management suggesting that under the right circumstances, people are fully capable of working productively and accepting responsibility for their work. Open Systems : Self sustaining systems that transform input from the external environment into output which the system then returns to the environment. Contingency approach : A perspective suggesting that organizational behavior is affected by a large number of interacting factors. How someone will behave is said to be contingent upon many different variables at once. Time and motion study : A type of applied research designed to classify and streamline the individual movements needed to perform jobs with the intent of finding “the one best way” to perform them. Scientific management : An early approach to management and organizational behavior emphasizing the importance of designing jobs as efficiently as possible. Human relations movement : A perspective on organizational behavior that rejects the primarily economic orientation of scientific management and recognizes instead, the importance of social processes in work settings. Hawthorne studies : The earliest systematic research in the field of OB, this work was performed to determine how the design of work environments affected performance. Classical Organizational Theory : An early approach to the study of management that focused on the most efficient way of structuring organizations. Division of Labor : The practiced of dividing work into specialized tasks that enable people to specialize in what they do best.
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Bureaucracy : An organizational design developed by max Weber that attempts to make organizations operate efficiently by having a clear hierarchy or authority in which people are required to perform well- defined jobs. Globalization : The process of interconnecting the world’s people with respect to the cultural, economic, political, technological, and environmental aspects of their lives. Multinational enterprises (MNEs): Organizations that have significant operations spread throughout various nations but are headquartered in a single nation. Expatriates
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Module 1 Terms - Lauren Fitzsimmons Organizational...

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