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OUTLINE exam 1 - O rg Psych Outline I H ISTORICAL...

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Org. Psych Outline: I. HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVES a. Classical Org. Theory i. Indust. Rev. 1700’s ii. People are all part of a machine- no one really cared about the actual workers. b. Adam Smith i. Division of Labor 1. Each person makes one part of the project 2. Miserable working conditions 3. Most efficient way- not having each person make own obj 4. Ex. Making pins- allows employment of unskilled laborers c. Max Weber i. Bureaucracy 1. ideal form, allows orgs to grow much larger. 2. Clear hierarchy of authority- managing 3. 1 st step for protection for workers 4. Critical developments, but can limit workers’ ability to develop d. Walter Dill Scott i. Advertising theory 1. Wundt student- applying advertising to social psych, official birth of I/O e. Hugo Munsterberg
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i. Psychology 1. How it affects film 2. Eyewitness –mind makes up images etc. 3. Lab being useful in workplace 4. Work was overlooked f. Robert Yerkes i. Alpha and Beta intelligence tests 1. Compared animals/ humans 2. Test for who is best for which jobs 3. 1 test for people who could read/ and who couldn’t read 4. Problem*- tests were discriminatory g. Frederick Taylor i. Scientific management 1. Everyone was to do the job they were best at.- he was kind of an asshole 2. Advocated the “1 best way” ( brick wall) a. Task identified through time and motivation 3. Picked workers on class status. 4. Improved workers conditions- but not for the workers. h. Lillian Gilbreth i. Mother of Modern management-
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1. 1 best way ran with it 2. Thought most about motivation- how to make them like the job higher $, heath. 3. “Perfect Kitchen” 4. Efficiency (12 kids) i. OVERVIEW i. Advances 1. Allowed orgs and employees to become more specialized 2. Applied psychological science to work ii. Limitations 1. No one cared about employees except Lillian G. 2. Over simplistic, no 1 best way. Can’t generalize everything depends on situation. j. Human Resource theory i. 1950’s influenced by civil rights ii. Served human needs, iii. Freedom to be creative, prosperity flows naturally from empowering and developing people. iv. Conducted at hawthorne plant of the Western Electric co. 1. Examine effects of work environment on productivity a. Ex. 1: light experiment- person observing lab coat provided pressure
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b. Ex 2: temp. experiment; wire wrappers tem made no diff. but they socialized and it helped 2. Social conditions of work influenced behavior k. MacGregor i. “ Human Side of Enterprise”- Self fulfilling proficey 1. Manag. Assumes the worst of emp. 2. Manag. Is controlling disrespectful 3. Emp. Respond neg. to poor treatment 4. Emp. Change to meet mang. Low expectations -> cycle ii. Theory X 1. Managers need to strictly control and direct emp. 2. Employees are passive and self interested iii. Theory Y 1. Emp. Are motivated and responsible and trustworthy 2. Managers need to facilitate and encourage emp <- Desirable prophecy l. OVERVIEW i. Advancements 1. Treatment of workers improved.
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