Rules of Unified English Braille 2013.pdf - The Rules of Unified English Braille Second Edition 2013 Edited by Christine Simpson Published by

Rules of Unified English Braille 2013.pdf - The Rules of...

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Unformatted text preview: The Rules of Unified English Braille Second Edition 2013 Edited by Christine Simpson Published by International Council on English Braille Rules of Unified English Braille ii Copyright: Second Edition © 2013 (original © 2010), Round Table on Information Access for People with Print Disabilities Inc. and International Council on English Braille. This publication is licensed under the Creative Commons AttributionNoncommercial-No Derivative Works 2.5 Australia Licence. To view a copy of this licence, visit or send a letter to Creative Commons, 171 Second Street, Suite 300, San Francisco, California 94105, USA. ISBN: 978-0-9807064-6-8 CONTACT: International Council on English Braille [email protected] Round Table on Information Access for People with Print Disabilities Inc. PO Box 229, Lindisfarne, Tasmania 7015 Australia [email protected] The official version of The Rules of Unified English Braille is held as a PDF file on the ICEB website. Print and braille versions of the Rulebook may be downloaded from there. Associated Document: Unified English Braille Guidelines for Technical Material (available for download from the ICEB website) Second Edition 2013 Rules of Unified English Braille iii Table of Contents Table of Contents ..............................................................................iii Foreword to the First Edition .............................................................xi Foreword to the Second Edition ...................................................... xiii Preface to the First Edition ............................................................... xv Preface to the Second Edition.......................................................... xix Acknowledgements ......................................................................... xxi About This Book............................................................................. xxiii Section 1: Introduction..................................................................... 1 1.1 Definition of braille ..................................................................... 1 1.2 Principles of Unified English Braille ............................................... 2 1.3 Basic signs found in other forms of English braille ......................... 3 Contractions ........................................................................................ 3 Punctuation ......................................................................................... 4 Composition signs (indicators) .............................................................. 4 General symbols................................................................................... 4 Technical subjects ................................................................................ 5 Section 2: Terminology and General Rules ........................................ 7 2.1 Terminology ............................................................................... 7 2.2 Contractions summary ................................................................ 9 2.3 Following print.......................................................................... 10 2.4 Indicators and modes ............................................................... 11 2.5 Grades of braille ....................................................................... 13 Uncontracted (grade 1) braille ............................................................ 13 Contracted (grade 2) braille ................................................................ 14 Other grades of braille ........................................................................ 15 2.6 Standing alone ......................................................................... 15 Section 3: General Symbols and Indicators .................................... 19 3.1 Ampersand @& ......................................................................... 21 3.2 Arrows \ \o \% \[ \+ ..................................................... 21 3.3 Asterisk "9 dagger @,? and double dagger @,] ..................... 21 3.4 Braille grouping indicators < > ................................................. 23 3.5 Bullet _4 ................................................................................. 24 3.6 Caret @5.................................................................................. 24 3.7 Commercial at sign @a ............................................................. 25 3.8 Copyright ^c registered ^r and trademark ^t signs ................. 25 3.9 Crosses @,? ;x ;,x "8 .................................................... 25 3.10 Currency signs @c @e @f @l @n @s @y ........................ 26 3.11 Degrees ^j minutes 7 ' and seconds 77 ,7 ........................ 27 3.12 Ditto mark "1 .......................................................................... 28 3.13 Dot locator for "mention" .= .................................................... 28 Second Edition 2013 Rules of Unified English Braille iv 3.14 3.15 3.16 3.17 Dot locator for "use" ""= ........................................................ 29 Feet 7 ' and inches 77 ,7 .................................................. 30 Female (Venus) ^x and male (Mars) ^y signs .......................... 30 Mathematical signs: plus "6 equals "7 multiplication "8 division "/ minus "- ratio 3 proportion 33 less-than @< and greater-than @>....................................................................... 31 3.18 Music accidentals: natural #* flat #< sharp #% ....................... 32 3.19 Number sign (crosshatch, hash, pound sign) _? ........................ 33 3.20 Paragraph ^p and section ^s signs .......................................... 33 3.21 Percent sign .0 ....................................................................... 33 3.22 Shapes $ ................................................................................. 34 3.23 Space ...................................................................................... 35 3.24 Subscript 5 and superscript 9 indicators.................................... 36 3.25 Tilde (swung dash) @9 ............................................................. 36 3.26 Transcriber-defined symbols ? #? @#? ^#? _#? "#? .#?........................................................................................ 37 3.27 Transcriber's note indicators @.< @.> ................................... 39 Section 4: Letters and Their Modifiers ............................................ 41 4.1 English alphabet....................................................................... 41 4.2 Modifiers.................................................................................. 42 4.3 Ligatured letters ....................................................................... 46 4.4 Eng and schwa......................................................................... 47 4.5 Greek letters ............................................................................ 48 Section 5: Grade 1 Mode ................................................................. 51 5.1 Mode indicators ........................................................................ 51 5.2 Grade 1 symbol indicator ;....................................................... 51 5.3 Grade 1 word indicator ;; ....................................................... 52 5.4 Grade 1 passage indicator ;;; ................................................ 52 5.5 Grade 1 terminator ;' ............................................................. 53 5.6 Numeric indicator #.................................................................. 53 5.7 Grade 1 mode avoids confusion with contractions ...................... 54 5.8 Grade 1 indicators and capitalisation ......................................... 55 5.9 Choice of indicators .................................................................. 56 5.10 Optional use of the grade 1 indicator ......................................... 57 5.11 Use of grade 1 indicators in grade 1 text ................................... 57 Section 6: Numeric Mode ................................................................. 59 6.1 Numeric indicators #a #b #c #d #e #f #g #h #i #j #1 #4............................................................................ 59 6.2 Numeric mode symbols............................................................. 60 6.3 Termination of numeric mode ................................................... 61 6.4 Placement of numeric prefix with full stop (period) ..................... 61 6.5 Numeric indicators set grade 1 mode........................................ 62 Second Edition 2013 Rules of Unified English Braille v 6.6 The numeric space "a "b "c "d "e "f "g "h "i "j .......................................................................................... 63 6.7 Treatment of dates, time, coinage, etc. ...................................... 64 6.8 Spaced numeric indicator # ....................................................... 65 6.9 Numeric passage indicator ## and numeric terminator #' ......... 66 6.10 Division of a number between lines............................................ 66 Section 7: Punctuation ................................................................... 69 7.1 General .................................................................................... 70 7.2 Dash, low line (underscore), long dash and hyphen ,- .",- - ................................................................................... 72 Hyphen(s) used as dash ..................................................................... 73 7.3 Ellipsis 444 ............................................................................. 74 7.4 Solidus (forward slash) _/ ........................................................ 74 7.5 Question mark 8 ...................................................................... 75 7.6 Quotation marks 8 0 ^8 ^0 ,8 ,0 _8 _0 ,7 ' ................................................................................. 76 7.7 Multi-line brackets ,"< ,"> ,.< ,.> ,_< ,_> .. 78 Section 8: Capitalisation ................................................................. 79 8.1 Use of capitals .......................................................................... 79 8.2 Extent of capitals mode ............................................................. 79 8.3 Defining a capital letter ............................................................. 79 8.4 Capitalised word indicator ,, ................................................... 80 8.5 Capitalised passage indicator ,,, ............................................ 83 8.6 Capitals terminator ,' ............................................................. 86 8.7 Placement of indicators ............................................................. 87 8.8 Choice of capitalised indicators .................................................. 87 8.9 Accented letters in fully capitalised words................................... 89 Section 9: Typeforms ...................................................................... 91 9.1 Deciding when to use typeform indicators .................................. 92 9.2 Typeform symbol indicators .2 ^2 _2 @2 @#2 ................. 93 9.3 Typeform word indicators .1 ^1 _1 @1 @#1 .................... 94 9.4 Typeform passage indicators and terminators .7 .' ^7 ^' _7 _' @7 @' @#7 @#'..................... 96 9.5 Transcriber-defined typeform indicators @#2 @#1 @#7 @#' ........................................................................................ 97 9.6 Small capitals ........................................................................... 98 9.7 Placement of typeform symbols with punctuation ....................... 99 9.8 Multiple typeform indicators for the same text .......................... 101 9.9 Typeform passages extending across consecutive same text elements ................................................................................ 101 Section 10: Contractions .............................................................. 103 10.1 Alphabetic wordsigns .............................................................. 103 Second Edition 2013 Rules of Unified English Braille vi 10.2 Strong wordsigns ....................................................................106 10.3 Strong contractions .................................................................108 10.4 Strong groupsigns ...................................................................109 ch, sh, th, wh, ou, st .........................................................................111 ing ...................................................................................................112 10.5 Lower wordsigns .....................................................................112 be, were, his, was.............................................................................113 enough ............................................................................................114 in .....................................................................................................114 Lower sign rule .................................................................................116 10.6 Lower groupsigns ....................................................................116 be, con, dis ......................................................................................116 ea, bb, cc, ff, gg ...............................................................................119 ea ....................................................................................................121 en, in ...............................................................................................122 Lower sign rule .................................................................................123 10.7 Initial-letter contractions ..........................................................124 Dots 45 ............................................................................................124 Dots 456 ..........................................................................................124 Dot 5 ...............................................................................................124 upon, these, those, whose, there .......................................................127 had ..................................................................................................128 ever .................................................................................................128 here, name.......................................................................................129 one ..................................................................................................130 some ...............................................................................................131 time .................................................................................................131 under ...............................................................................................132 10.8 Final-letter groupsigns .............................................................132 Dots 46 ............................................................................................132 Dots 56 ............................................................................................132 ity ....................................................................................................135 ness .................................................................................................135 10.9 Shortforms..............................................................................135 Shortforms as words .........................................................................136 Shortforms as parts of longer words ..................................................137 Words not appearing on the Shortforms List .......................................139 Avoiding confusion with shortforms....................................................140 10.10 Preference ..............................................................................142 Lower sign rule .................................................................................145 10.11 Bridging ..................................................................................146 Compound words..............................................................................146 Aspirated "h" ....................................................................................146 Second Edition 2013 Rules of Unified English Braille vii Prefixes ........................................................................................... 147 Suffixes ........................................................................................... 150 Diphthongs ...................................................................................... 151 10.12 Miscellaneous............................................................................ 152 Abbreviations and acronyms ............................................................. 152 Computer material ........................................................................... 155 Dialect ............................................................................................. 156 Fragments of words ......................................................................... 156 Guidelines when pronunciation or syllabification is unknown ............... 157 Lisping............................................................................................. 158 Medial punctuation and indicators ..................................................... 158 Omitted letters ................................................................................. 160 Speech hesitation, slurred words, vocal sounds .................................. 160 Spelling ........................................................................................... 160 Stammering ..................................................................................... 161 Syllabified words .............................................................................. 162 10.13 Word division ......................................................................... 162 Hyphenated words ........................................................................... 163 Alphabetic wordsigns and strong wordsigns ....................................... 164 ing .................................................................................................. 165 Lower sign rule ................................................................................ 165 Dash ............................................................................................... 165 be, con, dis ...................................................................................... 166 ea, bb, cc, ff, gg .............................................................................. 167 Final-letter groupsigns ...................................................................... 167 Shortforms....................................................................................... 167 Section 11: Technical Material....................................................... 169 11.1 Introduction ........................................................................... 169 11.2 Signs of operation and comparison .......................................... 169 Some common operation signs ......................................................... 169 Some common comparison signs ...................................................... 169 Spacing of operation and comparison signs in non-technical material .. 169 Spacing of operation and comparison signs in technical material ......... 170 11.3 Fractions ................................................................................ 170 Simple numeric fractions................................................................... 170 Mixed numbers ..............................................
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