Essential Environment: The Science behind the Stories (3rd Edition)

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Chapter 6 Testing Your Comprehension 1 Both interspecific and intraspecific competition can restrict the ecological role played by an individual, leaving it to fill just a portion of its full potential role, the so-called fundamental niche. This more limited role is the so-called realized niche. Species adapt to competition by evolving to use different resources, or to use shared resources in different ways. 2 Predation is the relationship in which one organism, a predator, consumes another, its prey. Parasitism is a relationship in which one organism, the parasite, depends on another, the host, for nourishment or some other benefit while simultaneously harming the host (but generally not killing it). Herbivory is the consumption of a plant or a portion of a plant by an animal, the herbivore. 3 Fungi and plant roots that form associations called mycorrhizae are symbiotic mutualisms. Bees pollinating plants while ingesting nectar exemplify a non-symbiotic mutualism. Many agriculturally important plant species require insect pollination. Moreover, each one of us depends on symbiotic bacteria in our digestive tracts to continue living. 4 A trophic level is a rank in the feeding hierarchy of a community, with plants and/or chemoautotrophic producers occupying the first trophic level, and various consumers occupying the second trophic level. If this list of who eats whom is extended, you have a food chain. In reality, it is common for one species to consume and be consumed by multiple species, resulting in a network of feeding relationships called a food web. 5
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EOC_ch06 - Chapter 6 Testing Your Comprehension 1 Both...

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