Essential Environment: The Science behind the Stories (3rd Edition)

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Chapter 13 Testing Your Comprehension 1 Urbanization has been driven by industrialization and by population growth. Cities grow quickly if their climate, topography, and configuration of waterways are attractive, and/or they are surrounded by land that people are leaving. Developing countries tend to have the highest population growth rates overall, and the highest urban growth rates as well. This is because they are in the midst of their demographic transition, and their populations are often fleeing conflicts and ecological degradation in the countryside in search of economic advancement in the city. 2 Affluent city-dwellers fled inner cities they perceived as crowded and crime-ridden, in order to live in suburbs they considered safer, more spacious, and more attractive. 3 Sprawl may be defined as the spread of low-density urban or suburban development outwards from an urban center, or as the physical spread of development at a rate greater than the rate of population growth. Its impacts include a greater reliance on cars for personal transportation, more pollution, negative impacts on health, habitat alteration as rural land is converted to developed land, and a drain of tax dollars from maintaining existing infrastructure to financing more growth. 4
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EOC_ch13 - Chapter 13 Testing Your Comprehension 1...

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