Essential Environment: The Science behind the Stories (3rd Edition)

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Chapter 22 Testing Your Comprehension 1 Waste can be managed by reducing the amount generated, reusing materials that you already own, recycling, composting organic material, and finally, disposal of whatever cannot be avoided or diverted from the waste stream by the first four measures. Waste management protects the environment and can have economic benefits as well. 2 The United States produces more waste per capita than any other country in the world—about 2.0 kg per person per day. Germany produces 0.9 kg per person per day, as do the average residents of Latin America. Most developing countries produce even less. 3 Sanitary landfills are regulated at the local, state, and federal levels in order to protect groundwater from contamination, and must provide daily cover to prevent odors and the spread of disease by animal vectors. Problems with landfills can include: a breach in containment resulting in groundwater contamination, odor, blowing trash, release of greenhouse gases, and 30 years worth of post-closure monitoring. 4 Incineration is the controlled burning of mixed garbage at very high temperatures. The resulting ash has considerably less mass than the original trash, but it must still be disposed of in a landfill. One drawback of incineration is that it generates toxic compounds that may be released as air pollution. Consequently, expensive scrubbers are needed to purify the exhaust, adding greatly to the cost of
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EOC_ch22 - Chapter 22 Testing Your Comprehension 1 Waste...

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