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Summary - Summary Gas chromatography(GC is a common type of...

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Summary Gas chromatography (GC), is a common type of chromatography used in analytic chemistry for separating and analyzing compounds that can be vaporized without decomposition. Typical uses of GC include testing the purity of a particular substance, or separating the different components of a mixture (the relative amounts of such components can also be determined). In some situations, GC may help in identifying a compound. In preparative chromatography, GC can be used to prepare pure compounds from a mixture. In this case the samples being tested are that of toluene and hexane. Introduction Gas chromatography is a physical method of separation in which the components to be separated are distributed between two phases, one being a stationary bed of large surface area, and the other a gas that percolates through the stationary bed. When the stationary phase is a solid, the separation process is more precisely called gas solid chromatography. This technique is generally used to separate gases in a gaseous solution. The more common technique (which will be used in this experiment) is gas liquid chromatography (GLC) in which the stationary phase is a porous solid covered with an absorbing liquid. GLC is used to separate a wide variety of organic compounds. The basic requirements for GLC are that the sample be volatile and that it not decompose in the vaporization process. Since the vaporization occurs in an inert atmosphere, decomposition of the sample is generally not a problem. A basic chromatography instrument consists of the following:
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1. A sample port or injector for introduction and vaporization of the sample; 2. A separating column, consisting of metal tubing packed with a solid material coated with a stationary absorbing liquid; 3. A carrier gas, usually N2 or He, to sweep the sample through the column; 4. Flow control equipment to maintain a constant flow of carrier gas through the column; 5. The detector for measuring the quantity of a separated component; 6. Ovens and heaters for temperature control of the column, detector and injector; 7. An integrator or integrator/strip chart recorder combination to provide permanent record of the analysis.
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