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Unformatted text preview: equilibrium potentials for ions involved Pharmacology use of agents other than primary stimuli that alter either permeation properties c) Types of channels: K + , Ca ++ and Na + Kinetics the gating (opening and closing) of channels a) leak channels flicker open and closed without stimuli 1 b) regulated channels have open probability dependent on stimuli c) observations; assessment of open probability (P open ) d) relationship of macroscopic currents and microscopic currents I = N . i . P open ; ensemble averages of single channel currents yield miniature versions of the whole cell current: benefit lies in knowing its single channel composition e) activation vs inactivation (voltage-dependent) or desensitization (ligand-dependent); representation by state diagrams for Kv and Na channels 2...
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- Fall '07