Chapter_2_-_Moodle - The History of the Family SOCL 2505...

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Unformatted text preview: The History of the Family SOCL 2505 – 1 August 30, 2010 The Study of the Family Began in the 1960s h Women & Gender Public family as old as civilization h Family and Kinship Hunter-gatherers: people who wander through forests or over plains in small bands, hunting animals and gathering edible plants h 10,000 years ago, began to settle Led to larger kin groups Patrilineages and matrilineages What Do Families Do? Ensure order h h h h Defend against outsiders Provide labor Assist others in group Recruit new members Family and Kinship Most Western societies begin with small family units Conjugal family: Husband, wife and children Extended family: Other relatives present in household h Family and kinship systems were developed to provide fundamental needs Food production Defense Public family more than private Historical Family Activities Production Reproduction Consumption u = Familial Mode of Production Characteristics: Self-sufficient, farming family Grow food, raise animals, produce clothing and build dwellings The American Family before 1776 American Indian Families Both types of lineages Independent children Lineages and clans strengthened social order h European Colonists No lineages Conjugal family provided services important to community The American Family before 1776 European Colonists No lineages Conjugal family provided services important to community Five additional functions: ○ Hospitals ○ Houses of correction ○ Orphanages ○ Nursing homes ○ Poorhouses The American Family before 1776 Family Diversity More diverse outside New England Loss of a parent Some claimed marriages that didn’t exist in the church ○ Informal marriages Contemporary Family Activities Reproduction Consumption = Labor Market Mode of Production u Characteristics: Work for wages Buy goods and services Separated home from workplace Parental authority eroded—land no longer bargaining chip The Emergence of the “Modern” American Family: 1776 to 1900 Four new characteristics: Marriage increasingly based on affection and mutual respect Women cared for children and maintained the home ○ “Women’s spheres” Children became the center of attention Number of children per family declined The Emergence of the “Modern” American Family: 1776 to 1900 (cont.) Individualism gains in importance Greater consideration given to one’s own self-satisfaction Increased emphasis on personal autonomy (freedom from constraints imposed by others) h Marriage retained moral basis Essential to preserve Divorce more difficult From Cooperation to Separation h h Transition from farming to wage labor Rise of commercial capitalism Women left home alone to tend to children and household “Separate spheres” The Rise of the Private Family: 1900-Present The Early Decades h Increase in premarital sex h Drop in the birthrate h New youth culture h Rapidly rising divorce rate h Rise in marriage rate h “Privacy” becomes valued The Rise of the Private Family: 1900-Present (cont) The Depression Generation h Severely affected family finances h Prestige of father possibly undermined h Divorce rate fell h Postponement of marriage and childbearing h Children helped out by working The Rise of the Private Family: 1900-Present (cont) The 1950s h Post WWII – most unusual & distinctive family patterns of the century h Baby boomers!!! Explanations: ○ Renewed emphasis on marriage and children ○ Size of birth cohort ○ Not an explanation for births to women in their 30s h High-point for the homemaker-breadwinner household Figure 2.1 Percentage never married among men and women aged 20 to 24 The Rise of the Private Family: 1900-Present The 1960s and Beyond h Birthrate plunged h Marriage delayed h Young people wanted independence h Cohabitation trend begins h Divorce rate doubled h Women working outside home Figure 2.2 Percentage of children aged 0-17 living in each of four types of families The Changing Life Course Life-course perspective: Study of changes to individuals’ lives over time and related to historic events The Changing Life Course Emergence of Early Adulthood uThe Role of Education Opportunities hConstrained hDeclining Parental Control ...
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