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final_verview_spring10

final_verview_spring10 - TCP/IP Essentials A Lab-Based...

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Unformatted text preview: TCP/IP Essentials A Lab-Based Approach Review Two Review Two Spring 2010 Polytechnic Institute of NYU Slide 2 zjzhao Caveat IPv6, Metro Ethernet, and MPLS are three topics recently covered in lecture. Although this deck of slides does not include these topics, students are required to study the related materials as discussed in class for the final exam. Polytechnic Institute of NYU Slide 3 zjzhao Protocols in Different Layers Port Number (DEC): • TCP/20, TCP/21 for FTP • UDP/520 for RIP • TCP/80 for HTTP … Frame Type (HEX): • 08:00 for IP • 08:06 for ARP … Protocol Number (DEC): • 1 for ICMP • 2 for IGMP • 6 for TCP • 17 for UDP • 47 for GRE • 89 for OSFP … Two Transport Protocols • User Datagram Protocol (UDP) • Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) Polytechnic Institute of NYU Slide 5 zjzhao Transport Layer Protocols • Transport layer protocols are end-to-end protocols • Their headers are not examined by intermediate routers Application Transport Network HOST Data Link Data Link Data Link Network Application Transport Network HOST Data Link Polytechnic Institute of NYU Slide 6 zjzhao UDP vs. TCP UDP – User Datagram Protocol • Datagram oriented • Unreliable, connectionless • Simple – the only thing that UDP adds is multiplexing and demultiplexing • Unicast and multicast • Commonly used for network control signaling services- Network management (SNMP), routing (RIP), naming (DNS), etc. • Useful for increasing number of multimedia applications TCP – Transmission Control Protocol • Stream oriented • Reliable, connection-oriented • Complex – establishing full duplex connection before data transfer) • Only unicast • Currently used by most Internet applications:- Web (HTTP), email (SMTP), file transfer (FTP), terminal (telnet), etc. Polytechnic Institute of NYU Slide 7 zjzhao Port Numbers • UDP (and TCP) use port numbers to identify applications • A globally unique flow of host application can be identified by a 5-tuple < Src. IP, Dst IP, Src. Port, Dst. Port, Protocol No.> • There are 65,535 UDP ports available per host – dynamic/private , used by clients, randomly picked, >49,151 (per IANA) – Registered, used by ordinary user processes, 1024 – 49,151 – well-known, used by servers, fixed, 1~1023 Polytechnic Institute of NYU Slide 8 zjzhao UDP Format IP header UDP header UDP data (payload) UDP message length Checksum 20 bytes 8 bytes 15 16 31 Source Port Number Destination Port Number • Port Numbers identify sending and receiving applications (processes). The maximum value for a port number is 2 16-1= 65,535 • Message Length is between 8 bytes (i.e., data field can be empty) and 65,535 bytes (length of UDP header and data in bytes) • Checksum is for UDP header and UDP data Polytechnic Institute of NYU Slide 9 zjzhao UDP Checksum • Optional – set all 0’s if not calculated – A calculated checksum can never be all 0’s....
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