midterm_review_spring10

midterm_review_spring10 - Review One TCP/IP Essentials A...

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TCP/IP Essentials A Lab-Based Approach NYU p o ly Review One Review One Spring 2010
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Polytechnic Institute of NYU Slide 2 zjzhao Hierarchical Communication Architecture •Networking can be quite complex and requires a high degree of cooperation between the involved parties. •Cooperation is achieved by forcing parties to adhere to a set of rules and conventions ( protocols ). •The complexity of the communication task is reduced by using multiple protocol layers: – Each protocol is implemented independently. – Each protocol is responsible for a specific subtask. – Protocols are grouped in a hierarchy. •A structured set of protocols is called a communications architecture or protocol suite.
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Polytechnic Institute of NYU Slide 3 zjzhao TCP/IP Protocols •Internet Protocol Suite •A combination of different protocols •Organized into four layers Application Layer Transport Layer Network Layer Data Link Layer
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Polytechnic Institute of NYU Slide 4 zjzhao Protocols in Different Layers Port Number (DEC): • TCP/20, TCP/21 for FTP • UDP/520 for RIP • TCP/80 for HTTP … Frame Type (HEX): • 08:00 for IP • 08:06 for ARP … Protocol Number (DEC): • 1 for ICMP • 2 for IGMP • 6 for TCP • 17 for UDP • 47 for GRE • 89 for OSFP …
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Polytechnic Institute of NYU Slide 5 zjzhao Hosts Communicating over a Hub
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Polytechnic Institute of NYU Slide 6 zjzhao Hosts Communicating over a bridge
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Polytechnic Institute of NYU Slide 7 zjzhao Hosts Communicating over a router
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Polytechnic Institute of NYU Slide 8 zjzhao Encapsulation •The application data is sent down •Each layer adds a header to the data (PDU) from its higher layer.
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Polytechnic Institute of NYU Slide 9 zjzhao Naming and Addressing Various processes in different computers are uniquely identify for communications. •Domain name •MAC address •IP address •Port number
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Polytechnic Institute of NYU Slide 10 zjzhao Domain Name • Identify a host, ex. www.poly.edu • User friendly • Hierarchically organized • Domain Name System (DNS): resolves a domain name to the corresponding IP address. – DNS servers and the domain name database – Name caching – DNS query and reply
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Polytechnic Institute of NYU Slide 11 zjzhao Ethernet Frame Format •Source Ethernet (MAC) Address •Destination Ethernet (MAC) Address •Frame Type: used to identify the payload •CRC: used for error control 4 bytes 38 – 1492 bytes 2 bytes 3 bytes 1 byte 1 byte 1 byte 2 bytes 6 bytes 6 bytes IEEE 802.2/802.3 CSMA/CD Frame Format CRC Data Frame Type Org. Code Ctrl. SSAP AA DSAP AA Length Src. Addr. Dest. Addr. 4 bytes 46 – 1500 bytes 2 bytes 6 bytes 6 bytes Ethernet Frame Format (RFC 894) CRC Data Frame Type Src. Addr. Dest. Addr.
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Polytechnic Institute of NYU Slide 12 zjzhao Collisions in Ethernet •The collision resolution process of Ethernet requires that a collision is detected while a station is still transmitting.
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midterm_review_spring10 - Review One TCP/IP Essentials A...

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