08. IP - 1 The Internet Protocol Communication Networks...

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Unformatted text preview: 1 The Internet Protocol Communication Networks Kang Xi, Polytechnic Institute of NYU 2 Before IP Different networks are running different protocols No global addressability Needs application layer gateways (ALGs) Loss of semantics Hard to deploy new applications Complicated end-to-end diagnose Hard for routing adjustment Communication Networks Kang Xi, Polytechnic Institute of NYU 3 Universal Solution: IP Communication Networks Kang Xi, Polytechnic Institute of NYU 4 IP: the Role Communication Networks Kang Xi, Polytechnic Institute of NYU 5 Network Interconnection using IP IP IP IP IP A unified network layer protocol: IP Using IP router for interconnection Global addressing Communication Networks Kang Xi, Polytechnic Institute of NYU 6 IP supports the following services: one-to-one ( unicast ) one-to-all ( broadcast ) one-to-several ( multicast ) IP multicast also supports a many-to-many service. IP multicast requires support of other protocols (IGMP, multicast routing) IP Service unicast broadcast multicast Communication Networks Kang Xi, Polytechnic Institute of NYU 7 Global Addressing 32-bit address: 192.168.10.11 Src/Dst address in each IP packet Forward each packet according to the address Ver HeadLen Type of Service Datagram Len ID Flag Offset Time-to-Live Upper Protocol Checksum Source Address Destination Address Options How to manage IP addresses? Think about telephone numbers Do we RANDOMLY assign telephone numbers? 718-260-3504 Area code exchange code local number, why? Any ideas about IP? Communication Networks Kang Xi, Polytechnic Institute of NYU 8 Communication Networks Kang Xi, Polytechnic Institute of NYU 9 Communication Networks Kang Xi, Polytechnic Institute of NYU 10 Example: Class C Address 1 Host (8 bits) Net (21 bits) 1 110 indicates a class C address 2^21 network addresses 254 hosts 8 bits: 0--255 0 is for network address 255 is for broadcast Communication Networks Kang Xi, Polytechnic Institute of NYU 11 Example Try Linux command: ipcalc Try google IPcalc Special Addresses...
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08. IP - 1 The Internet Protocol Communication Networks...

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