Exam 1 Study Guide

Exam 1 Study Guide - Exam 1 Study Guide (Key Terms) Chapter...

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Exam 1 Study Guide (Key Terms) Chapter 1: Atoms -a submicroscopic particle that constitutes the fundamental building block of ordinary matter the smallest identifiable unit of an element. Molecule - two or more atoms joined chemically in a specific geometrical arrangement. Chemistry - the science that seeks to understand the behavior of matter by studying the behavior of atoms and molecules. Hypothesis - a tentative interpretation or explanation of an observation; a good hypothesis is falsifiable. Experiment - a highly controlled procedure designed to generate observations that may support a hypothesis or prove it wrong. Scientific law - a brief statement or equation that summarizes past observations and predicts future ones. Law of conservation of mass - a law stating that matter is neither created nor destroyed in a chemical reaction. Theory - a proposed explanation for observations and laws based on well-established and tested hypotheses, that presents a model of the way nature works and predicts behavior beyond the observations and laws on which it was based. Atomic theory - the theory that each element is composed of tiny indestructible particles called atoms, that all atoms of a given element have the same mass and other properties, and that atoms combine in simple, whole-number ratios to form compounds. Scientific method - an approach to acquiring knowledge about the natural world that begins with observations and leads to the formation of testable hypotheses. Matter - anything that occupies space and has mass. Substance - a specific instance of matter. State - a classification of the form of matter as a liquid, solid, or gas. Composition - the components that make up a substance. Solid - a state of matter in which atoms or molecules are packed close to one another in fixed locations with definite volume. Liquid - a state of matte in which atoms or molecules pack about as closely as they do in solid matter but are free to move relative to each other, giving a fixed volume but not a fixed shape. Gas - a state of matter in which atoms or molecules have a great deal of space between them and are free to move relative to one another; lacking a definite shape or volume; conforms to its container.
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Crystalline sold (crystal) - a solid in which atoms, molecules, or ions are arranged in patterns with long- range repeating order. Amorphous solid - a solid in which atoms or molecules do not have any long-range order. Pure substance - a substance composed of only one type of atom or molecule. Mixture - a substance composed of two or more different types of atoms or molecules that can be combined in variable proportions. Element - a substance that cannot be chemically broken down into simpler substances. Compound
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Exam 1 Study Guide - Exam 1 Study Guide (Key Terms) Chapter...

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