Key Terms - Key Terms & People Chapter 1: Argument- a...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–3. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Chapter 1: Argument- a form of thinking in which certain statements (reasons) are offered in support of another statement (a conclusion) Reasons or Premises- statements that support another statement (known as a conclusion), justify it, or make it more probable Conclusion- a statement that explains, asserts, or predicts on the basis of statements (known as reasons or premises) that are offered as evidence for it Valid argument- an argument in which the reasons support the conclusion so that the conclusion follows from the reasons offered Invalid argument- an argument in which the reasons do not support the conclusion so that the conclusion does not follow from the reason offered Sound argument- an argument that has both true reasons and a valid structure Unsound argument- an argument that has either false reasons or an invalid structure Deductive argument- an argument form in which one reasons from premises that are known or assumed to be true to a conclusion that follows necessarily from these premises Syllogism- an argument form that consists of two premises and a conclusion Inductive argument- an argument form in which one reasons from premises that are known or assumed to be true to a conclusion that is supported by the premises but not necessarily follow from them Casual reasoning- a form of inductive argument in which one event is claimed to be the result of the occurrence of another event Empirical generalization- a form of inductive reasoning in which a general statement is made about an entire group (the “target population”) based on observing some members of the group (the “sample population”) Fallacies- unsound arguments that are often persuasive because they usually appeal to our emotions and prejudices and because they often support conclusions that we want to believe are accurate Chapter 2: Socratic Method- investigation of complex issues through a question-and-answer format Plato (426-347 B.C.E.)- ancient Greek philosopher of extraordinary significance in the history of ideas; not only preserved Socrates’ teachings for future generations but also contributed original ideas on a wide range of issues such as morality, politics, metaphysics, and epistemology
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Xenophon (444-357 B.C.E.)- biographer of Socrates and his student as a youth; in addition to four works on Socrates, he wrote histories and practical treatises on leadership, horsemanship, hunting, and economics; also a warrior, he fought for the Greeks and then for their enemies, the Spartans Agora- open marketplace in Athens, a place where crowds would gather for political speech and discussion Dialectic- from the Greek word for “to argue” or “converse,” a dynamic exchange or method involving contradiction or a technique for establishing an informed conclusion Sophists- influential group of traveling educators who would teach rhetoric and oration for a fee; many believed truth to be relative Irony- a form of rhetoric that has at least two conflicting levels of meaning- and obvious one and a
Background image of page 2
Image of page 3
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

This note was uploaded on 11/02/2010 for the course PHIL 201 taught by Professor Unknown during the Fall '09 term at Muskegon CC.

Page1 / 6

Key Terms - Key Terms & People Chapter 1: Argument- a...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 3. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online