Philosophy Exam Review

Philosophy Exam Review - Philosophy Exam Review Chapter 1...

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Philosophy Exam Review Chapter 1: Know the areas of philosophy- Metaphysics - the study of the ultimate characteristics of reality or existence (study of reality); What is the nature of reality?, What is the nature of the self?, Do we have personal freedom or are our choices limited? Epistemology - the study of knowledge, identifying and developing criteria and methodologies for what we know and why we know it; What is truth?, Can we ever really know anything?, How can you increase your wisdom? Ethics - the study of moral values and principles; How should we treat other people?, Is there a “good life” for humans?, How do we decide on the moral rightness of social issues? Political and Social Philosophy - the study of social values and political forms of government; What is the nature of justice?, What is the most enlightened from of government? Aesthetics - the study of beauty, art, and taste; What is the nature of beauty?, What is art? Logic - the branch of philosophy that seeks to establish the rules of correct reasoning, clear understanding and valid arguments; What are the logical principles of correct reasoning?, How do people use incorrect reasoning to reach false conclusions? Terminology- Argument- a form of thinking in which certain statements (reasons) are offered in support of another statement (a conclusion) Reasons or Premises- statements that support another statement (known as a conclusion), justify it, or make it more probable Conclusion- a statement that explains, asserts, or predicts on the basis of statements (known as reasons or premises) that are offered as evidence for it Valid argument- an argument in which the reasons support the conclusion so that the conclusion follows from the reasons offered Invalid argument- an argument in which the reasons do not support the conclusion so that the conclusion does not follow from the reason offered Sound argument- an argument that has both true reasons and a valid structure Unsound argument- an argument that has either false reasons or an invalid structure
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Deductive argument- an argument form in which one reasons from premises that are known or assumed to be true to a conclusion that follows necessarily from these premises Syllogism- an argument form that consists of two premises and a conclusion Inductive argument- an argument form in which one reasons from premises that are known or assumed to be true to a conclusion that is supported by the premises but not necessarily follow from them Casual reasoning- a form of inductive argument in which one event is claimed to be the result of the occurrence of another event Empirical generalization- a form of inductive reasoning in which a general statement is made about an entire group (the “target population”) based on observing some members of the group (the “sample population”) Fallacies- unsound arguments that are often persuasive because they usually appeal to our emotions and prejudices and because they often support conclusions that we want to believe are accurate Qualities of a Critical Thinker-
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