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Chapter 2 Outline - Chapter 2 Outline PSCY 201 F18 1...

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Chapter 2 Outline PSCY 201: F18 1) Neuroscience and Behavior a) Why so psychologists study biology? i) Biological psychology- a branch of psychology concerned with the links between biology and behavior. b) Neural Communication i) Neurons (1) Neuron- a nerve cell; the basic building block of the nervous system. (2) Dendrite- the bushy, branching extensions of a neuron that receive messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body. (3) Axon- the extension of a neuron, ending in branching terminal fibers, through which messages pass to other neurons or to muscles or glands. (4) Action potential- a neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon. (5) Threshold- the level of stimulation required to trigger a neural impulse. ii) How Neurons Communicate (1) Synapse- the junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite and cell body of the receiving neuron. The tiny gap at this junction is call the synaptic gap or cleft. (2) Neurotransmitters- chemical messengers that traverse the synaptic gaps between neurons. When released by the sending neuron, neurotransmitters travel across the synapse and bind to receptor sites on the receiving neuron, thereby influencing whether that neuron will generate a neural impulse. iii) How Neurotransmitters Influence Us (1) Endorphins- “morphine within”- natural, opiate like neurotransmitters linked to pain control and to pleasure. c) The Nervous System
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(1) Nervous system- the body’s speedy, electrochemical communication network, consisting of all the nerve cells of the peripheral and central nervous system. (2) Central nervous system (CNS)- the brain and spinal cord. (3) Peripheral nervous system (PNS)- the sensory and motor neurons that connect the CNS to the rest of the body. (4) Nerves- neural “cables” containing many axons. These bundles axons, which are part of the PNS, connect the CNS with muscles, glands, and sense organs.
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