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Chapter 5 Outline - Chapter 5 Outline PSYC 201 F18 1...

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Chapter 5 Outline PSYC 201: F18 1) Sensation and Perception a) Sensation- the process by which our sensory receptors and nervous system receive and represent stimulus energies from our environment. b) Bottom-up processing- analysis that begins with the sensory receptors and works up to the brain’s integration of sensory information. c) Perception- the process of organizing and interpreting sensory information, enabling us to recognize meaningful objects and events. d) Top-down processing- information processing guided by higher-level mental processes, as when we construct perceptions drawing on our experience and expectations. e) Sensing the World: Some Basic Principles i) Thresholds (1) Psychophysics- the study of relationships between the physical characteristics of stimuli, such as their intensity, and our psychological experience of them. (2) Absolute Thresholds (3) Absolute threshold- the minimum stimulation needed to detect a particular stimulus 50 percent of the time. ii) Subliminal Stimulation (1) Subliminal- below one’s absolute threshold for conscious awareness. (2) Prime- the activation, often unconsciously, of certain associations, thus predisposing one’s perception , memory, or response. iii) Difference Thresholds (1) Difference threshold- the minimum difference between two stimuli required for detection 50 percent of the time. (2) Weber’s law- the principle that, to be perceived as different, two stimuli must differ by a constant minimum percentage (rather than a constant amount). iv) Sensory Adaptation
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(1) Sensory adaptation- diminished sensitivity as a consequence of constant stimulation. (2) We perceive the world not exactly as it is, but as it is useful for us to perceive it. f) Vision i) The Stimulus Input: Light Energy (1) Wavelength- the distance from the peak of one light or sound wave to the peak of the next.
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