Chapter 9 Outline

Chapter 9 Outline - Chapter 9 Outline PSYC 201: F18 1)...

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Chapter 9 Outline PSYC 201: F18 1) Memory a) Thinking i) Cognition- the mental activities with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating. ii) Concepts (1) Concept- a mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people. (2) Prototype- a mental image or best example of a category. iii) Solving Problems (1) Algorithm- a methodical, logical rule or procedure that guarantees solving a particular problem. (2) Heuristics- a simple thinking strategy that often allows us to make judgments and solve problems efficiently; usually speedier but also more error-prone than algorithms. (3) Insight- a sudden and often novel realization of the solution to a problem; it contrasts with strategy-based solutions. (4) Obstacles to Problem Solving (a) Confirmation Bias (i) Conformation bias- a tendency to search for information that confirms one’s preconceptions. (b) Fixation (i) Fixation- the inability to see a problem from a new perspective; an impediment to problem solving.
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(ii) Functional fixedness- the tendency to think of things only in terms of their usual functions; an impediment to problem solving. iv) Making Decisions and Forming Judgments (1) Using and Misusing Heuristics (a) The Representativeness Heuristic (i) Representativeness heuristic- judging the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match, particular prototypes; may lead to ignore other relevant information. (b) The Availability Heuristic (i) Availability heuristic- estimating the likelihood of events on their availability in memory; if instances come readily to mind (perhaps because of their vividness), we presume such events are common. (2) Overconfidence (a) Overconfidence- the tendency to be more confident than correct- to overestimate the accuracy of one’s beliefs and judgments. (3) The Effects of Framing
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Chapter 9 Outline - Chapter 9 Outline PSYC 201: F18 1)...

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