Psychology Exam Study Guide

Psychology Exam - Psychology Exam Study Guide 1 Psychology Definition Psychology began as the science of mental life Wundt focused on inner

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Psychology Exam Study Guide 1. Psychology Definition: Psychology began as the science of mental life. Wundt focused on inner sensations, images, and feelings. James engaged in introspective examination of the stream of consciousness and of emotion. Freud emphasized the ways emotional responses to childhood experiences and our unconscious thought processes affect behavior. Thus, until the 1920s, psychology was defined as “the science of mental life.” From the 1920s into the 1960s, American psychologists, initially led by John B. Watson and later by B. F. Skinner, dismissed introspection and redefined psychology as “the scientific study of observable behavior.” Humanistic psychology was a softer, 1960s response to Freudian psychology and to behaviorism, which Carl Rogers and Abraham Maslow found too mechanistic. Rather than calling up childhood memories or focusing on learned behaviors, Rogers and Maslow both emphasized the importance of current environmental influences on our growth potential, and the importance of meeting our needs for love and acceptance. In the 1960s, psychology began to recapture its initial interest in mental processes through the studies of how our mind processes and retains information. This cognitive revolution supported earlier psychologists’ ideas about the importance of internal thought processes, but expanded those ideas to explore scientifically the ways we perceive, process, and remember information. To encompass psychology’s concern with observable behavior and with inner thoughts and feelings, today we define psychology as the scientific study of behavior and mental processes. 2. Neurotransmitters and Their Functions Neurotransmitter Function Examples of Malfunctions Acetylcholine Enables muscle action, learning, and memory. With Alzheimer’s disease. Ach- producing neurons deteriorate. Dopamine Influences movement, learning, attention, and emotion. Excess dopamine receptor activity linked to schizophrenia. Starved of dopamine, the brain produces the tremors and decreased mobility of Parkinson’s disease. Serotonin Affects mood, hunger, sleep, and arousal. Undersupply linked to depression; Prozac and some other antidepressant drugs raise
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serotonin levels. Norepinephrine Helps control alertness, sleep, and arousal Undersupply can depress mood. GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) A major inhibitory neurotransmitter. Undersupply linked to seizures. Tremors, Glutamate A major excitatory neurotransmitter; involved in memory. Oversupply can overstimulate brain, producing migraines or seizures (which is why come people avoid MSG, monosodium glutamate, in food). 3.
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This note was uploaded on 11/02/2010 for the course PSYC 201 taught by Professor Unknown during the Fall '08 term at Muskegon CC.

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Psychology Exam - Psychology Exam Study Guide 1 Psychology Definition Psychology began as the science of mental life Wundt focused on inner

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