Chapter 16 - Chapter 16 Cancer Cancer in the U.S Cancer is...

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Chapter 16, Cancer Cancer in the U.S. Cancer is the second leading cause of death in the U.S. The American Cancer Society estimated for 2008: Over ½ million deaths About 1500 deaths per day 23% of all deaths in U.S. Cancer? Condition characterized by the uncontrolled growth of cells Develops from a single cell that goes awry Clonal growth: replication of a single cell that produces thousands of copies of itself in an uncontrolled manner Healthy Cell Growth Healthy cells divide when needed to replace cells that have died or been sloughed off. Each time a cell divides; there is a possibility of mutation or an error in DNA replication. Healthy cells have a complicated system of checks and balances that control cell growth and division. (lice Enzymes, immune system, & limits on number of divisions each cell can make) Stem cells pose a risk for cancer but have a special protective mechanism. Stem cells are located deep within tissues and are protected from factors that increases the risk of genetic mutation (exposure to the sun, chemicals, and irritation). Cancer Cell Growth Starts from a single cell that undergoes a mutation: An error in duplication In response when exposed to a carcinogen, a cancer causing substance Radiation Oncogene: gene that drives cell to grow and divide disregarding signals Tumor: mass of extra tissue. By be benign (slow growth) or Malignant (spreading to surrounding tissues) Types of cancer 4 broad types of cancer: carcinomas: arise from epithelial tissue, (skin, lining of the intestines and body cavities, surface of body organs, outer portion of glands) 80-90% of all cancers Sarcomas: connective tissue (bone, tendon, cartilage, muscle, fat tissues) Leukemia’s: blood originate in the bone marrow or the lymphatic system Lymphomas: in lymph nodes and glands
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Risk Factors for Cancer Family History: having a family history does NOT mean you WILL get cancer.
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