OB_Study_Guide__2 - OB Study Guide 1 Chapter 1 Trends and...

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OB Study Guide 1. Chapter 1: Trends and Issues a. Trends i. Fertility Rate: the total number of live births, regardless of age of mother, per 1,000 women of productive age, 15 to 44 years. ii. Birth Rate: number of live births per 1,000 people b. Preterm Births i. Very premature: born before 32 weeks ii. Moderately premature: born between 32 and 34 weeks iii. Late premature: born between 34 and 36 weeks iv. Full term: 40 weeks c. Birth Weight i. Low Birth Weight: less than 2500 grams but more than 1500 ii. Very Low Birth Weight: less than 1500 grams d. Infant Mortality Rate i. Death before the first birthday 1. Congenital malformations 2. Disorder related to short gestation 3. SIDS 4. accidents e. Maternity Death i. The death of a woman during pregnancy or within 42 days of termination of a pregnancy ii. Direct Obstetric Death: death resulting from complications during pregnancy, labor, birth and/or postpartum, and from incorrect treatment. iii. Indirect Obstetric Death: death that is due to preexisting disease or a disease that develops during pregnancy that does not have a direct obstetric cause. iv. Late Maternal Death: death that occurs more than 42 days after termination from direct or indirect cause. v. Pregnancy related cause: maternal death that occurs with pregnancy or within 42 days of termination regardless of cause of death. vi. Causes of maternal death: 1. severe hemorrhage (25%), infections (13%), eclampsia (12%), other such as HIV and AIDS (29%), obstructed labor (8%) f. Health Disparities i. Largest category is low income 1. Less likely to receive health care ii. Regardless of race or ethnicity 2. Chapter2: Ethics and Standards of Practice Issues a. Ethical Principles
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i. Autonomy: right to self-determination ii. Respect for others: principle that all persons are equally valued iii. Beneficence: obligation to do good iv. Nonmaleficence: obligation to do no harm v. Justice: principle of equal treatment of others or that others be treated fairly vi. Fidelity: faithfulness or obligation to keep promises vii. Veracity: obligation to tell the truth viii. Utility: the greatest good for the individual or an action that is valued ix. Paternalism: system in which an authority makes decisions for others b. Ethical Dilemma: i. A choice that has the potential to violate ethical principles 1. Advocacy: action taken in response to our ethical responsibility; to intervene on behalf of those in our care 2. Examples: court ordered treatment, withdrawal of life support, harvesting fetal organs, fetal surgery, substance abuse in pregnancy, fetal reduction, reconception, gender selection c. Ethical Approaches i. The Rights Approach: focus is on the individuals right to choose, and the rights include the right to privacy, to know the truth, and to be free from injury or harm ii. The Utilitarian Approach: posits that ethical actions are those that provide the greatest balance of good over evil and provides for the greatest good for the greatest number d. Four Topics Method
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OB_Study_Guide__2 - OB Study Guide 1 Chapter 1 Trends and...

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