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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 1-5 Outline I. Introduction: Themes in the Study of Life A. (1.1)Themes connect the concepts of biology 1. Evolution, the Overarching Theme of Biology • Adaptations to the enviroment are results of evolution-transformation of life from the beginning to the diversity of life today. 2. Theme: New properties emerge at each level in the biological hierarchy • Study of life is divided into different levels of biological hierarchy. Ex: Biosphere, Ecosystems, Organisms, Cells, etc. a. Emergent Properties • New properties that emerge at each level that the previous level didn’t have. This is caused by the different arrangements and interactions of parts as it gets more complicated. b. The Power and Limitations of Reductionism • Reduce a complex system to simpler parts. • Inorder to understand the emergent properties biologist need to look at the whole not just its parts. c. Systems Biology • System is combination of parts that work together. • By understanding biological systems. Biologists are able to predict how certain components can affect other parts or the whole system. 3. Theme: Organisms interact with their enviroments, exchanging matter and energy a. Ecosystem Dynamics • Cycling of nutrients. Ex: minerals from a tree will return to the soil by insects • One-way flow of energy from sunlight to producers to consumers b. Energy Conversion • Energy flows through the ecosytem as heat, light, chemical, and kinetic energy. 4. Theme: Strcture and function are correlated at all levels of biological organizations • The structure and function at each level are connected. By understanding it is constructed we can find its function and vise versa. 5. Theme: Cells are an organism’s basic units of structure and function • Cells are the lowest level of the organization that can perform all activities required for life. • Eukaryotic Cell consists of a variety of organelles. Contains a nucleus that surrounds the DNA • Prokaryotic cell is much simpler and lacks many of the orangelles that the Eukaryotic Cell have. There is no nucleus. 6. Theme: The continuity of life is based on heritable information in the form of DNA • DNA-deoxyribonulaic acid • Gene- the units of inheritance that transmit information from parent to offspring a. DNA Structure and Function • DNA controls the development and maintanance of the entire organism and, indirectly,everything it does. • DNA has two long chain arrange in a double helix. Each chain links a nucleotide- chemical building blocks of the DNA. • Each different arrangements of the nucleotides encode a different gene. • Genome- the entire “library” of genetic instructions that an organism inherits b. Systems biology at the levels of cells and molecules 7. Theme: Feedback mechanisms regulate biological systems • Negative Feedback slows down the process • Positive feedback speeds up the process B. (1.2)The Core Theme: Evolution accounts for the unity and diversity of life 1. Organizing the diversity of life •...
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