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Unformatted text preview: Biology I Outline Chapter 1-6 Chapter 1 Themes in the study of life Evolution- the process of change that has transformed life on Earth from its earliest beginnings to the diversity of organisms living today. Biology- the scientific study of life Emergent properties- properties that are not present at the preceding level due to the arrangement and interactions of parts as complexity increases (biological hierarchy) Reductionism- the reduction of complex systems to simpler components that are more manageable to study. Biologists must balance the reductionist strategy with the larger-scale, holistic objective of understanding emergent properties how the parts of the cells, organisms, and higher levels of order, such as ecosystems, work together. At the cutting edge of research today is the approach called systems biology . Levels of Biological Organization 1. Biosphere Includes most regions of land, most bodies of water, atmosphere of an altitude of several kilometers. All the environments of Earth inhabited by life. 2. Ecosystems all living things in a particular area, along with all the nonliving components of the environment with which life interacts, such as soil, water, light atmospheric gases. All of Earths ecosystems combined make up the biosphere. 3. Communities the entire array of organisms inhabiting a particular ecosystem is called a biological community. 4. Populations all the individual species living within the bounds of a specified area. A community is the set of populations that inhabit a particular area. 5. Organisms individual living things 6. Organs and organ systems an organ carries a specific function in the body of complex organisms. They are organized into organ systems. 7. Tissues a group of similar cells 8. Cells lifes fundamental unit of structure and function 9. Organelles the various functional components that make up the cell 10. Molecules a chemical structure consisting of two or more small chemical units called atoms. The goal of systems biology is to construct models for the dynamic behavior of whole biological systems. Ecosystem dynamics the operation of any ecosystem involves two major processes. One process is the cycling of nutrients Second, in an ecosystem is the one-way flow of energy from sunlight to producers to consumers. Themes : New properties emerge at each level in the biological hierarchy. Organisms interact with their environments exchanging matter and energy. Structure and function are correlated at all levels of biological organization. Cells are an organisms basic units of structure and function. Prokaryotic cell the cells of two groups of micro organisms called bacteria and archaea. The DNA is not separated from the rest of the cell by enclosure in a membrane-bounded nucleus....
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