Notes - Chapter 1 Themes in the Study of Life I Themes...

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Chapter 1: Themes in the Study of Life I. Themes connect the concepts of biology A. Biology is the study of life - Evolution is the process of change that transformed life on Earth from its earliest beginnings to the diversity of organisms living today. - Due to the arrangement and interactions of parts, emergent properties are properties that are not present in the preceding level. (In a head injury, the mind not function even though all the parts are there. Our thoughts and memories are emergent properties of our nerves and cells. - Reductionism is the reduction of complex systems to simpler components that are manageable to study. - Biologists must balance the reductionist strategy with the larger-scale, holistic objective of understanding emergent properties – how the parts of the cells, organisms, and higher levels of order, such as ecosystems, work together. At the cutting edge of research today is the approach called systems biology. B. Levels of Biological Organization 1. Biosphere – Includes most regions of land, most bodies of water, atmosphere of an altitude of several kilometers. All the environments of Earth inhabited by life. 2. Ecosystems – all living things in a particular area, along with all the nonliving components of the environment with which life interacts, such as soil, water, light atmospheric gases. All of Earth’s ecosystems combined make up the biosphere. 3. Communities – the entire array of organisms inhabiting a particular ecosystem is called a biological community. 4. Populations – all the individual species living within the bounds of a specified area. A community is the set of populations that inhabit a particular area. 5. Organisms – individual living things 6. Organs and organ systems – an organ carries a specific function in the body of complex organisms. They are organized into organ systems. 7. Tissues – a group of similar cells 8. Cells – life’s fundamental unit of structure and function 9. Organelles – the various functional components that make up the cell 10. Molecules – a chemical structure consisting of two or more small chemical units called atoms. II. Ecosystem Dynamics and Themes A. Ecosystem Dynamics is when the operation of any ecosystem involves two major processes. One process is the cycling of nutrients Second, in an ecosystem is the one-way flow of energy from sunlight to producers to consumers. - The four themes are: - New properties emerge at each level in the biological hierarchy. - Organisms interact with their environments exchanging matter and energy. - Structure and function are correlated at all levels of biological organization. - Cells are an organisms basic units of structure and function. -
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Notes - Chapter 1 Themes in the Study of Life I Themes...

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