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Outline - the substance burns Lavoiser showed oxygen a...

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Chapter 1 1.1 Some fundamental definitions Chemistry – the study of matter and its properties, the changes that matter undergoes, and the energy associated with those changes Matter – anything that has mass and volume Composition – the types and amounts of simpler substances that make it up Properties – the characteristics that give each substance its unique identity Three states of matter – solid, liquid, gas Central theme of Chemistry is that we study observable changes in matter to understand their unobservable causes. Potential energy is the energy due to the position of the object. Kinetic energy is the energy due to the motion of the object. Higher energy substances are less stable than lower energy substances. 1.2 Chemical arts and the origins of modern chemistry Phlogistan theory – combustible materials have an undetectable substance called phlogiston which is released when
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Unformatted text preview: the substance burns Lavoiser showed oxygen, a component of air is required for combustion and combines with a substance when it burns. 1.3 The Scientific Approach: Developing a model 1. Observations – natural phenomena and measured events, universally consistent one can be stated as a natural law 2. Hypothesis – tentative proposal that explains observations 3. Experiment – procedure to test hypothesis, measures one variable at a time 4. Model (theory) – set of conceptual assumptions that explains data from accumulated experiments, predicts related phenomena 5. Further experimenting – tests predictions based on model 1.4 Chemical Problem Solving Density = mass/volume Significant Figures Multiplication/Division – takes on the sig figures of the one with fewest Addition/Subtraction – same number of decimal places as the fewest decimal places...
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