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09-09-05 - Ancient Rome

09-09-05 - Ancient Rome - 2 Conquered the Mediterranean...

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Ancient Rome 09/09/05 1. Republic, ca 500-27 BC a. Ruled by Senate i. Ultimately an oligarchy ii. Represents the collective leadership of the state b. Successful i. Steady growth until it controls the Mediterranean c. The Army i. Influenced by both Greek and Etruscan Models ii. Composition 1. Old Rome : Phalanx, Citizen Soldiers 2. Later: Romans Italians 3. Serve in the army citizens 4. Therefore, property qualifications disappear iii. Types of Soliders 1. Velites (light infantry) 2. Legionnaires become the standard 3. Soldiers become more capable 4. Cavalry - Non-Italian “auxilia” 5. By the 1 st Century, army becomes entirely professional 6. Potential for individual leaders to rise to prominence a. Right of the “imperium” b. Trend of Leaders to Gain Power Via the Military c. Marius, d. 86 : de facto dictator of Rome for a few years d. Sulla, d 78 e. Caesar f. Octavian Augustus iv. Sea-Power 1. Romans were generally anti-sea in terms of military presence
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Unformatted text preview: 2. Conquered the Mediterranean without much sailing 3. Some issues with pirates v. Faces numerous varied enemies vi. Romans had a harsh code of discipline 1. Huge rewards but ever-present possibility of death vii. Tactics 1. Creation of Legion-based army as a result of Rome’s sacking by Gauls in 390 BC 2. 5000 legions comprised of “maniples” 3. In principle, as early legions enter battle, the army attacked in waves by throwing older and older troops at the enemy 4. “Manipuler” legion 5. Cohort, another group of soldiers. By the 1 st Century BC, maniples have disappeared in light of cohorts, a group of three maniples 6. Romans assumed that maniples were too small and were already being grouped 7. Need an army small enough to live off the land, but large enough to not be overwhelmed 8. “Cohort” legion 2. Empire 27 BC – 411 AD a....
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