Biology Chapter 40

Biology Chapter 40 - Chapter 40 Basic Principles of Animal...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 40: Basic Principles of Animal Form and Function Diverse Forms, Common Challenges- Anatomy: The study of the structure of an organism- Physiology: The study of the functions an organism performs Exchange with the Environment- Animal’s size and shape have direct effect on how the animal exchanges energy and materials with its surroundings- All living cells need to be bathed in an aqueous medium, a requirement for maintaining the fluid integrity of the plasma membranes- A single celled protist living in water has a sufficient surface area of plasma membrane that functions as a loading and unloading platform for a modest volume of cytoplasm o Works only id the cells of the animal have access to a suitable aqueous environment o A flat body shape is another design that maximizes expose to surrounding medium o Two layered sacs and flat shapes are designs that put a large surface area In contact with the environment Tissues and Structure and Function - Tissues: Groups of cells with a common structure and functions- Tissues are classified into four main categories o Epithelial Tissue: covers the outside of the body and lines organs and cavities within the body Cells are closed joined, with little material between them Glandular Epithelia: Absorb or secrete chemical solutions Mucous Membrane: Secrete mucus that lubricates the surface and keeps it moist Simple Epithelium: Single layer of cells Stratified Epithelium: Multiple tiers of cells Shape of cells at the exposed surface may be cuboidal (like dice), columnar (like bricks standing on end), or squamous (like floor tiles) o Connective Tissue: functions mainly to bind and support other tissues Tightly packed celled Sparse population of cells scattered through an extracellular matrix 9consists of web fibers, that may be liquid, jelly-like, or solid) Connective tissue fibers are made up three kinds of fibers • Collagenous Fibers: Made of Collagen (most abundant in the animal kingdom) • Elastic Fibers: Long threads of a protein classed elastin o Provide rubbery quality that complements the nonelastic strength of collagenous fibers • Reticular Fibers: Very thin and branched o Composed of collagen and continuous with collagenous fibers, form a tightly woven fabric that joins connective tissue to adjacent tissues Major types of connective tissue in vertebrate are loose connective tissue, adipose tissue, fibrous connective tissue, cartilage, bone and blood Fibroblasts: Secrete protein ingredients of the extracellular fibers Macrophages: Amoeboid cells that roam the maze fibers, engulfing foreign particles and the debris of dead cells by phagocytosis o Muscle Tissue Composed of long cells called muscle fibers that are capable of contracting, usually stimulated by nerve signals Most abundant tissue in most animals In the vertebrate there are three types of muscle tissues: skeletal, cardiac and smooth muscle o Nervous Tissue Senses stimuli and transmits signals in form of nerve impulses from one part of the animal to...
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This note was uploaded on 11/04/2010 for the course BIO 107 taught by Professor Abott during the Fall '09 term at UConn.

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Biology Chapter 40 - Chapter 40 Basic Principles of Animal...

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