Formal Lab Report; Enzymes

Formal Lab Report; Enzymes - Title: Factors that Effect...

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Title: Factors that Effect Enzyme Activity Introduction: Enzymes are proteins, which hasten the speed of a chemical reaction that takes place, by lowering the activation energy ; they (enzymes) can be referred to as a catalyst. Since, enzymes are extremely selective in the chemical reaction that they catalyze and the substrates that are involved in the chemical reaction; they are grouped according to their specific function. During the process, enzymes they are not consumed by the reaction. Since, the enzyme itself is not used up in the chemical reaction, large quantities of enzymes are not needed (Lombard Karen, Terry Thomas (2007) Laboratory Manual for Biology 107 pg 63) The Basic Reaction Equation of Enzyme Reaction [http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/24/Induced_fit_diagram.svg/450px-Induced_fit_diagram.svg.png] During the enzyme reaction, the substrate binds to the active site, where the active site slightly changes its shape in order to provide the substrate with an induced fit. Hence, forming an enzyme substrate complex, the substrate is attached to the active site by weak hydrogen and ionic bonds. The active site can lower activation energy and speed up a reaction by acting as a
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template for substrate orientation, stressing the substrates and stabilizing the transition state, provide a favorable microenvironment and participating directly in the catalytic reaction (Campbell Neil, Reece Jane (2004) Biology Seventh Edition page 153). Once the substrate is snuggly fitted into the enzyme, they are converted into products, which are then released providing an active site that is available for two new substrate molecules. Enzymes have a unique shape to them, which only allows a specific substrate to bind to the active site (Campbell Neil, Reece Jane (2004) Biology Seventh Edition page 152). The active site is comprised of a few of the enzyme’s amino acids and proteins molecules, which defines the shape of the active site. The location of the active site is where the substrate binds to an enzyme. When a substrate binds to an enzyme, the enzyme has the ability to slightly alter its shape, which is caused when the chemical groups of the amino acids and protein come into contact with one another. Hence, ensuring a nestled fit between the active site and substrate (this can be referred to as an “induced fit”, which reinforces the bond between the active site and substrate). There are several factors that can affect the rate of enzyme activity. For example, inhibitor, enzyme concentration, substrate concentration, pH level, and temperature, are all issues that may either increase or decrease enzyme activity. Hypotheses as follows: · Presence of an inhibitor would decrease enzyme activity · Increase of enzyme concentration would increase enzyme activity · Increase of substrate concentration would increase enzyme activity, then remain constant · Increase of pH level would increase, then decrease · Increase of temperature would increase, then decrease
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Formal Lab Report; Enzymes - Title: Factors that Effect...

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