lab13.1 - Objective: The objective was to react t-butyl...

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Objective: The objective was to react t -butyl alcohol with concentrated hydrochloric acid and to remove the product ( t -butyl chloride) as it is formed via an azeotropic distillation. Introduction: Alkyl halides can be prepared by reacting an alcohol with concentrated hydrogen halides: where X = Cl, Br, I. The reaction of hydrochloric acid with 2° and 3° alcohols involves wthe formation of a carbocation, R + . When possible, 2 ° carbocations rearrange to form the more stable 3 ° carbocations. On the other hand, 3 ° carbocations are relatively stable and seldom yield rearranged products. As for the experiment, t -butyl alcohol was reacted with concentreated hydrochloric acid and the product ( t -butyl chloride) was removed as it was formed via an azeotropic distillation. The distillate was washed first with a sodium bicarbonate solution to neutralize any remaining traces of acid, and then with water to remove any basic bicarbonate that may regenerate the starting alcohol or form an alkene during the final distillation: Materials/Precautions: Materials: 1. t -butyl alcohol 2. concentrated hydrochloric acid 3. 50-mL round-bottomed flask 4. short stem funnel 5. beaker 6. 10% NaHCO 3 solution 7. 125-mL separatory funnel 8. saturated sodium bicarbonate solution 2
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9. magnesium sulfate 10. vial Precautions: 1. t -Butyl alcohol is flammable (flash point 9 ° C) and all falmes should be
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lab13.1 - Objective: The objective was to react t-butyl...

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