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Unformatted text preview: 1.1. Solve: 1.2. Solve: 1.3. Solve: 1.4. Solve: (a) The basic idea of the particle model is that we will treat an object as if all its mass is concentrated into a single point. The size and shape of the object will not be considered. This is a reasonable approximation of reality if (i) the distance traveled by the object is large in comparison to the size of the object, and (ii) rotations and internal motions are not significant features of the objects motion. The particle model is important in that it allows us to simplify a problem. Complete realitywhich would have to include the motion of every single atom in the objectis too complicated to analyze. By treating an object as a particle, we can focus on the most important aspects of its motion while neglecting minor and unobservable details. (b) The particle model is valid for understanding the motion of a satellite or a car traveling a large distance. (c) The particle model is not valid for understanding how a car engine operates, how a person walks, how a bird flies, or how water flows through a pipe. 1.5. Solve: (a) An operational definition defines a concept or an idea in terms of a procedure , or a set of operations, that is used to identify or measure the concept. (b) The displacement r G of an object is a vector found by drawing an arrow from the objects initial location to its final location. Mathematically, f i . r r r = G G G The average velocity v G of an object is a vector that points in the same direction as the displacement r G and has length, or magnitude, / , r t G where f i t t t = is the time interval during which the object moves from its initial location to its final location. 1.6. Solve: The player starts from rest and moves faster and faster (accelerates). 1.7. Solve: The particle starts with an initial velocity but as it slides it moves slower and slower till coming to rest. This is a case of negative acceleration because it is an acceleration opposite to the positive direction of motion. 1.8. Solve: The acceleration of an object is a vector formed by finding the ratio of v G , the change in the objects velocity, to , t the time in which the change occurs. The acceleration vector a G points in the direction of , v G which is found by vector subtraction. 1.9. Solve: (a) Acceleration is found by the method of Tactics Box 1.3. Let v G be the velocity vector between points 0 and 1 and 1 v G be the velocity vector between points 1 and 2. (b) Speed 1 v is greater than speed v because more distance is covered in the same interval of time. 1.10. Solve: (a) Acceleration is found by the method of Tactics Box 1.3. Let v G be the velocity vector between points 0 and 1 and 1 v G be the velocity vector between points 1 and 2....
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 Spring '10
 Ron
 Mass

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