Notes II - 10/4 EXPLAINING DEVIANCE* I. Why do people...

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10/4 EXPLAINING DEVIANCE****************************************************************** I. Why do people deviate? (all theories about crime) - Strain theory (Merton); there’s a strain between the standards of success and your reality - the notion of anomie (state of normlessness, there aren’t any norms) - feel that what is expected of you doesn’t match reality (X is successful but that’s not realistic) - the problem of the American Dream - expectations vs. aspirations - code of the street, prisons *people engage in deviance because the cards are stacked against them - Differential Association theory (Sutherland): - deviance is learned in primary groups - positive: negative ratio - social organization: do they expose you to positive or negative groups? *who you know *why is someone deviant? Who are they hanging out with? Why are you hanging out with them - Life Course Theory of Crime : your life is a course, it unfolds over time with ups and downs and turns - stages of life: the course is broken into stages - trajectories of behavior - transition points: can change directory *the particular social and psychological circumstances of life during that time leading up to that time - Labeling Theory : no difference between deviance and non-deviance, perception due to label 1. Not a deviant b/c of what you do but b/c some label has been applied to you (Magic Johnson) 2. Consequences of labeling 3. Self-fulfilling nature of labels (code of the streets, saints and the roughnecks) *you engage in deviance b/c of a combination of your behavior and status position II. Why don’t people deviate? A. Social Bond Theory (Hiirshci) - if left unchecked, we would all be deviant - bonds to conventional institutions block the inevitable from happening *you do not… B. Deterrence Theory - people decide whether to deviate after weighing the potential costs and benefits - raising costs or reducing benefits bloc 10/11 10/18 POVERTY AND ECONOMIC INEQUALITY Structural Argument: we maintain poverty so there must be some purpose behind it Meeting ground: sometimes there’s something about the environment that’s bigger than what you’re doing (living healthily but in an impoverished place) Poverty increased by: loss of jobs, babies out of wedlock II. Social Mobility: moving up (or down) the ladder - definition: the movement of people or groups from one economic level to another - types: - intergenerational: mobility comparing one generation to the next (us to parents) - intragenerational: same generation, within your life are you mobile (us at 30 vs. us at 50) - cultural capital: not financial, things get passed down in families that can differentiate (knowing when to say you read Wall Street instead of People)
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Wisconsin Model of Status Attainment: your attainment can be best predicted by your father’s attainment - defining factor = education; father’s attainment predicts your education level which predicts your attainment RACIAL AND ETHNIC INEQUALITY I. Overview of Race in the US
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Notes II - 10/4 EXPLAINING DEVIANCE* I. Why do people...

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