t1504 - 15.7 The Matrix Phase ● S-181 Table 15.4...

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Unformatted text preview: 15.7 The Matrix Phase ● S-181 Table 15.4 Characteristics of Several Fiber-Reinforcement Materials Specific Gravity Tensile Strength [GPa (106 psi)] Whiskers Graphite Silicon nitride Aluminum oxide Silicon carbide 2.2 3.2 4.0 3.2 20 (3) 5–7 (0.75–1.0) 10–20 (1–3) 20 (3) Fibers Aluminum oxide Aramid (Kevlar 49) Carbon a E-Glass Boron Silicon carbide UHMWPE (Spectra 900) 3.95 1.44 1.78–2.15 2.58 2.57 3.0 0.97 1.38 (0.2) 3.6–4.1 (0.525–0.600) 1.5–4.8 (0.22–0.70) 3.45 (0.5) 3.6 (0.52) 3.9 (0.57) 2.6 (0.38) Metallic Wires High-strength steel Molybdenum Tungsten 7.9 10.2 19.3 2.39 (0.35) 2.2 (0.32) 2.89 (0.42) 0.30 0.22 0.15 210 (30) 324 (47) 407 (59) 26.6 31.8 21.1 0.35 2.5–2.85 0.70–2.70 1.34 1.40 1.30 2.68 379 (55) 131 (19) 228–724 (32–100) 72.5 (10.5) 400 (60) 400 (60) 117 (17) 96 91 106–407 28.1 156 133 121 9.1 1.56–2.2 2.5–5.0 6.25 700 (100) 350–380 (50–55) 700–1500 (100–220) 480 (70) 318 109–118 175–375 150 Specific Strength (GPa) Modulus of Elasticity [GPa (106 psi)] Specific Modulus (GPa) Material a The term ‘‘carbon’’ instead of ‘‘graphite’’ is used to denote these fibers, since they are composed of crystalline graphite regions, and also of noncrystalline material and areas of crystal misalignment. plasticity, prevents the propagation of brittle cracks from fiber to fiber, which could result in catastrophic failure; in other words, the matrix phase serves as a barrier to crack propagation. Even though some of the individual fibers fail, total composite fracture will not occur until large numbers of adjacent fibers, once having failed, form a cluster of critical size. It is essential that adhesive bonding forces between fiber and matrix be high to minimize fiber pull-out. In fact, bonding strength is an important consideration in the choice of the matrix–fiber combination. The ultimate strength of the composite depends to a large degree on the magnitude of this bond; adequate bonding is essential to maximize the stress transmittance from the weak matrix to the strong fibers. ...
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