0943 - 268 ● Chapter 9 / Failure 400 300 200 Stress (MPa)...

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Unformatted text preview: 268 ● Chapter 9 / Failure 400 300 200 Stress (MPa) 60 40 30 427°C (800°F) 538°C (1000°F) 10 8 6 4 3 102 103 104 105 2 Stress (103 psi) Stress (103 psi) 20 100 80 60 40 30 20 649°C (1200°F) Rupture lifetime (h) FIGURE 9.42 Stress (logarithmic scale) versus rupture lifetime (logarithmic scale) for a low carbon–nickel alloy at three temperatures. (From Metals Handbook: Properties and Selection: Stainless Steels, Tool Materials and SpecialPurpose Metals, Vol. 3, 9th edition, D. Benjamin, Senior Editor, American Society for Metals, 1980, p. 130.) at a variety of temperatures. Figure 9.43 shows data that were collected at three temperatures for the same nickel alloy. Clearly, a straight line segment is drawn at each temperature. 9.18 DATA EXTRAPOLATION METHODS (CD-ROM) 9.19 ALLOYS FOR HIGH-TEMPERATURE USE There are several factors that affect the creep characteristics of metals. These include melting temperature, elastic modulus, and grain size. In general, the higher the melting temperature, the greater the elastic modulus, and the larger the grain 200 30 20 100 80 Stress (MPa) 60 40 30 427 C (800 F) 10 8 6 538 C (1000 F) 20 4 3 2 10 8 10 2 649 C (1200 F) 10 1 1 1.0 Steady-state creep rate (%/1000 h) FIGURE 9.43 Stress (logarithmic scale) versus steady-state creep rate (logarithmic scale) for a low carbon–nickel alloy at three temperatures. (From Metals Handbook: Properties and Selection: Stainless Steels, Tool Materials and Special-Purpose Metals, Vol. 3, 9th edition, D. Benjamin, Senior Editor, American Society for Metals, 1980, p. 131.) ...
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