E-START - Metal Forming Handbook Metal Forming Handbook...

Info iconThis preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: Metal Forming Handbook Metal Forming Handbook /Schuler (c) Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1998 3 Berlin Heidelberg New York Barcelona Budapest Hong Kong London Milan Paris Santa Clara Singapore Tokyo Metal Forming Handbook /Schuler (c) Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1998 M ETA L F O R M I N G HANDBOOK 123 Metal Forming Handbook /Schuler (c) Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1998 SCHULER GmbH Bahnhofstr. 41 73033 Göppingen Germany Consulting editor: Professor Taylan Altan Director, Engineering Research Center for Net Shape Manufacturing The Ohio State University, USA Cataloging-in-Publication Data applied for Die Deutsche Bibliothek – CIP-Einheitsaufnahme Metal forming handbook / Schuler. – Berlin ; Heidelberg ; New York ; Barcelona ; Budapest ; Hong Kong ; London ; Milan ; Paris ; Santa Clara ; Singapore ; Tokyo : Springer, 1998 Dt. Ausg. u. d. T.: Handbuch der Umformtechnik ISBN 3-540-61185-1 ISBN 3-540-61185-1 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg New York This work is subject to copyright.All rights are reserved, whether the whole part of the material is concerned, specifically the rights of translation, reprinting, reuse of illustrations, recitation, broadcasting, reproduction on microfilm or in any other way, and storage in data banks. Duplication of this publication or parts thereof is permitted only under the provisions of the German Copyright Law of September 9, 1965, in its current version, and permission for use must always be obtained from Springer-Verlag. Violations are liable for prosecution under the German Copyright Law. © Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1998 Printed in Germany The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, etc. in this publication does not imply, even in the absence of a specific statement, that such names are exempt from the relevant protective laws and regulations and therefore free for general use. Cover design by MEDIO, Berlin Layout design and data conversion by MEDIO, Berlin Printing and binding by Konrad Triltsch Druck- und Verlagsanstalt, Würzburg SPIN: 10514857 3020/ 62/ 5 4 3 2 1 0 – Printed on acid-free paper. Metal Forming Handbook /Schuler (c) Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1998 Preface Following the long tradition of the Schuler Company, the Metal Forming Handbook presents the scientific fundamentals of metal forming technology in a way which is both compact and easily understood. Thus, this book makes the theory and practice of this field accessible to teaching and practical implementation. The first Schuler “Metal Forming Handbook” was published in 1930. The last edition of 1966, already revised four times, was translated into a number of languages, and met with resounding approval around the globe. Over the last 30 years, the field of forming technology has been radically changed by a number of innovations. New forming techniques and extended product design possibilities have been developed and introduced. This Metal Forming Handbook has been fundamentally revised to take account of these technological changes. It is both a textbook and a reference work whose initial chapters are concerned to provide a survey of the fundamental processes of forming technology and press design. The book then goes on to provide an in-depth study of the major fields of sheet metal forming, cutting, hydroforming and solid forming. A large number of relevant calculations offers state of the art solutions in the field of metal forming technology. In presenting technical explanations, particular emphasis was placed on easily understandable graphic visualization. All illustrations and diagrams were compiled using a standardized system of functionally oriented color codes with a view to aiding the reader’s understanding. It is sincerely hoped that this Handbook helps not only disseminate specialized knowledge but also provides an impetus for dialogue between the fields of production engineering, production line construction, teaching and research. Metal Forming Handbook /Schuler (c) Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1998 VI Metal Forming Handbook This Handbook is the product of dedicated commitment and the wide range of specialized knowledge contributed by many employees of the SCHULER Group in close cooperation with Prof. Dr.-Ing. H. Hoffmann and Dipl.-Ing. M. Kasparbauer of the utg, Institute for Metal Forming and Casting at the Technical University of Munich. In close cooperation with the SCHULER team, they have created a solid foundation for the practical and scientific competence presented in this Handbook. We wish to offer our sincere thanks and appreciation to all those involved. Goeppingen, March 1998 Schuler GmbH Board of Management Metal Forming Handbook /Schuler (c) Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1998 Contributors ADAM, K., Dipl.-Ing. (FH), SMG Süddeutsche Maschinenbau GmbH & Co BAREIS, A., Dipl.-Ing. (FH), Schuler Pressen GmbH & Co BIRZER, F., Prof. Dipl.-Ing., Feintool AG BLASIG, N., Dipl.-Ing. (FH), Schleicher Automation GmbH & Co BRANDSTETTER, R., Dipl.-Ing. (FH), Schuler Pressen GmbH & Co BREUER, W., Dipl.-Ing., Schuler Pressen GmbH & Co FRONTZEK, H., Dr.-Ing., Schuler GmbH HOFFMANN, H., Prof. Dr.-Ing., Lehrstuhl für Umformtechnik und Gießereiwesen, Technische Universität München JAROSCH, B., Dipl.-Ing. (FH), Schuler Pressen GmbH & Co KÄSMACHER, H., SMG Engineering für Industrieanlagen GmbH KASPARBAUER, M., Dipl.-Ing., Lehrstuhl für Umformtechnik und Gießereiwesen, Technische Universität München KELLENBENZ, R., Dipl.-Ing. (FH), Schuler Pressen GmbH & Co KIEFER, A., Dipl.-Ing. (BA), GMG Automation GmbH & Co KLEIN, P., Gräbener Pressensysteme GmbH & Co. KG KLEMM, P., Dr.-Ing., Schuler Pressen GmbH & Co KNAUß, V., Dipl.-Ing. (FH), Schuler Werkzeuge GmbH & Co KOHLER, H., Dipl.-Ing., Schuler Guß GmbH & Co KÖRNER, E., Dr.-Ing., Schuler Pressen GmbH & Co KUTSCHER, H.-W., Dipl.-Ing.(FH), Gräbener Pressensysteme GmbH & Co. KG LEITLOFF, F.-U., Dr.-Ing., Schäfer Hydroforming GmbH & Co MERKLE, D., Schuler Pressen GmbH & Co OSEN, W., Dr.- Ing., SMG Süddeutsche Maschinenbau GmbH & Co PFEIFLE, P., Dipl.-Ing. (FH), Schuler Pressen GmbH & Co REITMEIER, C., Dipl.-Ing., Schäfer Hydroforming GmbH & Co REMPPIS, M., Ing. grad., Schuler Pressen GmbH & Co ROSENAUER, K., Dipl.-Ing. (FH), Schuler Werkzeuge GmbH & Co Metal Forming Handbook /Schuler (c) Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1998 VIII Metal Forming Handbook SCHÄFER, A.W., Schäfer Hydroforming GmbH & Co SCHMID, W., Dipl.-Ing. (FH), Schuler Werkzeuge GmbH & Co SCHMITT, K. P., Schuler Pressen GmbH & Co SCHNEIDER, F., Dipl.-Ing. (FH), Schuler Pressen GmbH & Co SIMON, H., Dr.-Ing., Schuler Werkzeuge GmbH & Co STEINMETZ, M., Dipl.-Wirt.-Ing., SMG Engineering für Industrieanlagen GmbH STROMMER, K., Dipl.-Ing. (FH), Schuler Pressen GmbH & Co VOGEL, N., Dipl.-Ing., Schleicher Automation GmbH & Co WEGENER, K., Dr.-Ing., Schuler Pressen GmbH & Co Metal Forming Handbook /Schuler (c) Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1998 Contents Index of formula symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . XV 1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Basic principles of metal forming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1 Methods of forming and cutting technology . . . . . . . . . 2.1.1 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1.2 Forming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1.3 Dividing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.1.4 Combinations of processes in manufacturing . . . . . 2.2 Basic terms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.1 Flow condition and flow curve. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.2 Deformation and material flow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.3 Force and work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.4 Formability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2.2.5 Units of measurement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Fundamentals of press design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1 Press types and press construction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1.1 Press frame . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1.2 Slide drive . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.1.3 Drive systems for deep drawing presses . . . . . . . . . . 3.1.4 Draw cushions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 5 5 5 6 19 22 25 25 26 28 30 31 32 33 33 34 37 41 44 Metal Forming Handbook /Schuler (c) Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1998 X Metal Forming Handbook 3.2 Mechanical presses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2.1 Determination of characteristic data . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2.2 Types of drive system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2.3 Drive motor and flywheel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2.4 Clutch and brake . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2.5 Longitudinal and transverse shaft drive . . . . . . . . . 3.2.6 Gear drives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2.7 Press crown assembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2.8 Slide and blank holder . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2.9 Pneumatic system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2.10 Hydraulic system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.2.11 Lubrication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3 Hydraulic presses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.1 Drive system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.2 Hydraulic oil . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.3 Parallelism of the slide . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.4 Stroke limitation and damping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.3.5 Slide locking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.4 Changing dies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.4.1 Die handling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.4.2 Die clamping devices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 49 54 60 61 63 65 66 66 70 71 72 73 73 77 80 82 83 86 86 91 3.5 Press control systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 3.5.1 Functions of the control system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 3.5.2 Electrical components of presses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 3.5.3 Operating and visualization system . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 3.5.4 Structure of electrical control systems . . . . . . . . . . 97 3.5.5 Functional structure of the control system . . . . . . 99 3.5.6 Major electronic control components . . . . . . . . . . 99 3.5.7 Architecture and hardware configuration . . . . . . . 101 3.5.8 Architecture of the PLC software . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 3.5.9 Future outlook . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 3.6 Press safety and certification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.6.1 Accident prevention . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.6.2 Legislation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.6.3 European safety requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3.6.4 CE marking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 106 107 107 111 Metal Forming Handbook /Schuler (c) Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1998 Contents XI 3.6.5 3.6.6 Measures to be undertaken by the user . . . . . . . . . 115 Safety requirements in the USA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 3.7 Casting components for presses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 4 Sheet metal forming and blanking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1 Principles of die manufacture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1.1 Classification of dies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1.2 Die development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1.3 Die materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1.4 Casting of dies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1.5 Try-out equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.1.6 Transfer simulators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2 Deep drawing and stretch drawing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.1 Forming process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.2 Materials for sheet metal forming . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.3 Friction, wear and lubrication during sheet metal forming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.4 Hydro-mechanical deep drawing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.2.5 Active hydro-mechanical drawing . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 123 123 128 142 142 148 154 156 156 174 179 185 188 4.3 Coil lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194 4.4 Sheet metal forming lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4.1 Universal presses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4.2 Production lines for the manufacture of flat radiator plates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4.3 Lines for side member manufacture . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4.4 Destackers and blank turnover stations . . . . . . . . 4.4.5 Press lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4.6 Transfer presses for small and medium sized parts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4.7 Large-panel tri-axis transfer presses . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4.8 Crossbar transfer presses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4.9 Presses for plastics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4.10 Stacking units for finished parts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.4.11 Control systems for large-panel transfer presses . . 198 198 208 210 217 222 229 234 243 250 252 254 Metal Forming Handbook /Schuler (c) Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1998 XII Metal Forming Handbook 4.5 Blanking processes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268 4.6 Shearing lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.6.1 Slitting lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.6.2 Blanking lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.6.3 High-speed blanking lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.6.4 Lines for the production of electric motor laminations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.6.5 Production and processing of tailored blanks . . . . 4.6.6 Perforating presses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.6.7 Control systems for blanking presses . . . . . . . . . . . 4.7 Fine blanking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.7.1 Fine blanking process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.7.2 Fine blanking materials, forces, quality characteristics and part variety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.7.3 Fine blanking tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.7.4 Fine blanking presses and lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.8 Bending . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.8.1 Bending process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.8.2 Roll forming and variety of sections . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.8.3 Roller straightening . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.9 Organization of stamping plants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.9.1 Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.9.2 Layout . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4.9.3 Quality assurance through quality control . . . . . . 284 284 286 291 296 310 314 320 330 330 338 351 359 366 366 373 383 389 389 391 398 Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 403 5 Hydroforming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 405 5.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 405 5.2 Process technology and example applications . . . . . . . 5.2.1 Process technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2.2 Types of hydroformed components . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.2.3 Fields of application . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 405 405 408 410 Metal Forming Handbook /Schuler (c) Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1998 Contents XIII 5.3 Component development . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3.1 User-oriented project management . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3.2 Feasibility studies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5.3.3 Component design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 413 413 414 416 5.4 Die engineering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 420 5.4.1 Die layout. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 420 5.4.2 Lubricants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 422 5.5 Materials and preforms for producing hydroformed components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 423 5.5.1 Materials and heat treatment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 423 5.5.2 Preforms and preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 424 5.6 Presses for hydroforming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 426 5.7 General considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 429 5.7.1 Production technology issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 429 5.7.2 Technical and economic considerations . . . . . . . . 431 Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 432 6 Solid forming (Forging) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 433 6.1 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 433 6.2 Benefits of solid forming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 441 6.2.1 Economic aspects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 441 6.2.2 Workpiece properties . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 443 6.3 Materials, billet production and surface treatment . . . 6.3.1 Materials. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3.2 Billet or slug preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.3.3 Surface treatment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 450 450 454 459 6.4 Formed part and process plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 464 6.4.1 The formed part . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 464 6.4.2 Process plan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 467 6.5 Force and work requirement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 469 6.5.1 Forward rod extrusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 469 6.5.2 Forward tube extrusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 474 Metal Forming Handbook /Schuler (c) Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1998 XIV Metal Forming Handbook 6.5.3 6.5.4 6.5.5 6.5.6 6.5.7 Backward cup extrusion and centering . . . . . . . . . Reducing (open die forward extrusion) . . . . . . . . . . Ironing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Upsetting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Lateral extrusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 474 475 476 476 477 6.6 Part transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 478 6.6.1 Loading station . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 479 6.6.2 Transfer study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 481 6.7 Die design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.7.1 Die holders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.7.2 Die and punch design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.7.3 Die and punch materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.7.4 Die closing systems (multiple-action dies) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.8 Presses used for solid forming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.8.1 Choice of press . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.8.2 Mechanical presses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.8.3 Hydraulic presses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.8.4 Supplementary equipment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.8.5 Special features of hot and warm forming lines . . 6.8.6 Sizing and coining presses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.8.7 Minting and coin blanking lines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 485 488 491 496 502 505 505 507 514 517 520 522 526 Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 541 Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 543 Metal Forming Handbook /Schuler (c) Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1998 Index of formula symbols rib angle, bending angle, clearance angle, die opening angle, corner angle for blanking 1 2 ° ° ° ° ° ° ° required bending angle desired bending angle draw ratio, corner angle when bending tot max total draw ratio maximum draw ratio elongation, starting measurement relative cross section change efficiency degree of utilization of the sheet metal, utilization force forming efficiency factor coefficient of friction volumetric flow stress mean stress largest stress mean comparative stress smallest stress normal contact stress radial stress 1/s N/mm2 N/mm2 N/mm2 N/mm2 N/mm2 N/mm2 N/mm2 % A A F V · m max md min N r Metal Forming Handbook /Schuler (c) Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1998 XVI Metal Forming Handbook t v z 1 2 3 R tangential stress comparative stress, effective stress critical buckling stress greatest principle stress mean principle stress smallest principle stress frictional shear stress degree of deformation, strain, logarithmic/true strain N/mm2 N/mm2 N/mm2 N/mm2 N/mm2 N/mm2 N/mm2 · B g 1, 2, 3 strain rate, deformation rate, deformation speed fracture strain principle deformation deformation in main directions surface blanking plate measurement, rim width, leg length during bending, slot width initial surface, surface of blank cross section blanking punch dimension surface of blank cross section, end surface ultimate elongation ejector surface, surface area under pressure by the ejector space between the rows sheared surface cross section of the punch, surface area of hole punch blank surface, area of the blank web width, leg length during bending, strip width, section width deflection shell-shaped tear width die roll width strip width material coefficient blank diameter, plate diameter, mandrel diameter mm mm mm2 mm mm mm2 mm mm2 % mm2 mm mm2 mm2 mm2 mm2 mm mm mm mm mm mm A a A0 a1 A1 A5, A80 AG aR AS ASt AZ b B bA bE bS c D Metal Forming Handbook /Schuler (c) Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1998 Index of formular symbols XVII d d’ d0 d1 d2 d3 e E F f1, f2, f3 FA FB Fb FG FGa FGes FN FN0 FR FRa FRe FS FST Ft FU g h inner diameter, hole diameter, (perforating) punch diameter inside diameter of bottom die blank diameter, initial billet diameter diameter of the draw punch in the first drawing operation, punch diameter, end diameter upper cup diameter, outside diameter outside flange diameter off-center position of force application elasticity module force offset factors ejection force blank holder force bending force counterforce ejection force total machine force normal force rated press force, nominal load radial tension force, friction force, vee-ring force stripping force reaction force blanking force for punch with flat ground work surface, shearing force slide force tangential compression force pressing force, forming force, maximum drawing force gravitational acceleration forming path, drawing stroke, distance, height, punch displacement; lubrication gap mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm mm N/mm2 kN kN kN kN kN kN kN kN kN kN kN kN kN kN kN kN kN kN m/s2 mm mm m mm mm H h0 plate thickness initial billet height, height of blank Metal Forming Handbook /Schuler (c) Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1998 XVIII Metal Forming Handbook h1 h1 ’ h2 hE hG hR, HR hS1 hS2 i k k2 kf kf0 kf1 kfm kh kR kS kw kwm l L la le lR lS m Mx My P p pB final height of a body after compression intermediate height, height of the truncated cone cup height die roll height flash height height of vee-ring smooth cut section in case of fracture minimal smooth cut section in case of shell-shaped fracture side cutter scrap correction factor correction coefficient (angle) flow stress flow stress at the start of the forming process flow stress towards the end of the forming process mean stability factor correction coefficient (height) springback factor shearing resistance, shearing strength, relative blanking force deformation resistance mean deformation resistance rib length strip length, mandrel length rim length web length, strip length length of vee-ring length of sheared contour cut mass, module of a gear eccentric moment of load around the x axis eccentric moment of load around the y axis performance, drive power pressure specific blank holder pressure mm mm mm mm mm mm % % mm N/mm2 N/mm2 N/mm2 N/mm2 N/mm2 N/mm2 N/mm2 N/mm2 mm mm mm mm mm mm kg kNm kNm W, kW N/mm2 N/mm2 Metal Forming Handbook /Schuler (c) Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1998 Index of formular symbols XIX pG pi pj pm pSt qG r R ra Ra ReL Rp0,2 ri Ri ri1 ri2 Rm Rt Rw Rz s sR t tw u U v V average compressive stress on the counterpunch internal pressure compressive stress at the wall of the bottom die mean (hydraustatic) pressure average compressive stress on the punch, average forming pressure specific counterforce, counterpressure radius corner radius external radius of an inside contour external radius of an outside contour lower yield strength compression limit inside bending radius, internal radius of an inside contour internal radius of an outside contour inside radius at the die inside radius at the workpiece tensile strength of the material surface roughness roller radius surface roughness sheet metal thickness, wall thickness, blank thickness position of the center of force (xs- und ys : coordinates of the force), center of gravity pitch roller pitch blanking clearance speed/stroking speed, cut contour circumferences, punch perimeter counterbalance value during bending, compensation factor feed step, volume N/mm2 N/mm2 N/mm2 N/mm2 N/mm2 N/mm2 N/mm2 mm mm mm mm N/mm2 N/mm2 mm mm mm mm mm N/mm2 m mm m mm mm mm mm mm mm 1/min mm mm mm mm mm3 Metal Forming Handbook /Schuler (c) Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1998 XX Metal Forming Handbook V0 V1 V1’ V2 Vd W w Wb Wd We wid WN WS x xs ys z zw starting volume, overall volume, part volume intermediate volume, compensation value intermediate volume, compensation value intermediate volume, compensation value volume displaced during deformation deformation/forming work die width bending work drawing work on double-action presses, draw energy of a double-action press drawing work on single-action presses, draw energy of a single-action press referenced deformation work, specific forming work nominal work for continuous stroking blanking work, blanking energy, shearing work correction factor location of the resulting blanking force in the x direction location of the resulting blanking force in the y direction no. of teeth of a gear, no. of workpieces roller feed value mm3 mm3 mm3 mm3 mm3 Nm, kNm J, kJ mm Nm Nm, kNm Nm, kNm Nm, kNm Nm, kNm Nmm/mm3 Nm, kNm Nm, kNm mm mm mm Metal Forming Handbook /Schuler (c) Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1998 ...
View Full Document

This note was uploaded on 11/04/2010 for the course ACC 411 taught by Professor Kim during the Spring '08 term at Aberystwyth University.

Ask a homework question - tutors are online