baileych12notes - CHAPTER 12 The Second War for...

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CHAPTER 12 The Second War for Independence and the Upsurge of Nationalism: 1812-1824 The war of 1812 was one of the US’s worst fought wars. There was disunity and apathy. The regular army was inadequate ill trained, ill disciplined, widely scattered. The war was poorly planned and managed. The US navy could not challenge the power of the British Navy on the Atlantic On to Canada over Land and Lakes 1. Much of the military leadership had fought in the Revolutionary War and they had no vision or vigor. 2. An even more poorly trained militia supplemented our regular army. Men who were quick to retreat and did not want to serve out of their area of the country. 3. The US attempted several times to invade Canada, but was unsuccessful. 4. Instead of capturing Montreal, the population center, a 3-pronged invasion from Detroit, Niagara, and Lake Champlain was planned. The troops were beaten back shortly after crossing the Canadian border. 5. Compared to the Americans the British and Canadians were successful and energetic. 6. In 1812 they captured Ft. Michilimackinac which gave them control of the upper Great Lakes Region and Indian areas to the S & W. 7. Isaac Brock was a good Br. general, whereas Generals Mud and Confusion led Americans. 8. In 1813 Americans attempted to invade Canada again. The British who captured Niagara and burned Buffalo, NY defeated them. 9. Americans decided to turn to war on the water, where we were more successful. We handle our ships and guns better and we had non-press gang crews who wanted revenge. 10. Our frigates such as USS United States and Old Ironsides/ USS Constitution) had thicker sides, more cannon, and larger crews which were 16 free black crews and won big victories. The Constitution totally destroyed the British ships Guerriere in 1812, 11. British plans to invade the US from Canada were thwarted by Oliver Hazard Perry who defeated a British fleet on Lake Erie, which kept them from gaining control of Detroit. His message, “We have met the enemy and they are ours.” 12. As the British retreated General William Henry Harrison defeated them at the Battle of the Thames were Tecumseh was killed fighting with the British. 13. Napoleon was defeated and exiled to Elba in 1814, which allowed the British to send more troops to the US. They undertook a 3-pronged attack of the US. 14. The first part of the attacks involved bringing an army down Lake Champlain. In Sept, 1814 Captain Thomas McDonough pulled off a surprised victory near Plattsburgh on Lake Champlain. He saved upper New York, stopped discontent in NE, possibly saved the Union, and had a positive effect on the peace negotiations. Washington Burned and New Orleans Defended
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1. In August, 1814 as part of the 3-pronged attack the British invaded the Chesapeake Bay, where 4,000 Br. dispersed 6,000 militia near Bladensburg (the Bladensburg races) and then proceeded to DC, which they captured. As Madison and his aides fled into the countryside, they burned the capital, the White House and most public buildings.
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