Music 300[1] - Music 300 Mark Wallace Chapter 1 Basic...

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Music 300 Mark Wallace Chapter 1: Basic Elements of Music What is Music? 1.) “The art of arranging sounds in time to produce a continuous, unified, and evocative composition; using melody, rhythm, and timbre.” 2.) Text : “An art based on the organization of sounds in time.” 3.) “An aesthetically pleasing or harmonious sound or combination of sounds.” Pitch - The relative highness or lowness of sound. Tone - a sound with a definite pitch. Scales - tones that are organized into groups. (Series of pitches arranged in order from low to high or high to low.) Interval - Distance in pitch between tones. Dynamics - degrees of loudness and softness in music - composer uses this to help evoke feeling - has sudden and gradual changes o Crescendo (<)- gradually louder o Decrescendo (>)- gradually softer Tone Color (Timbre )- quality of sound that distinguishes one instrument or voice from another. - It is determined by: o The material of the instrument o The size and shape of the instrument o What’s initiating the vibrations, Etc. - We often use visual words (bright, dark, mellow, etc.) - Changes is tone color create variety and contrast. - Examples: o Trumpet- bright tone color (brass)
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o Wood wind instruments- darker tone color o String instruments- have both qualities (combo) Chapter 3: Rhythm What is Rhythm ? - The organizing factor in music - Text: The ordered flow of music through time. 1.) Beat - pulse in a piece of music; it divides the music into smaller units. The beat can be steady, or it can be stretched. 2.) Meter - a way of grouping beats together a. Groups of beats are called measures . b. They can be symmetrical (2,3,4) or asymmetrical (5,7,11). 3.) Accent - a stress or emphasis on one beat (or part of a beat) over another. a. Ex. The waltz- 1 is emphasized over 2 3 4.) Syncopation - Accents a beat (or part of a beat) that is not expected. 5.) Tempo- speed of the beat; may be steady or can be elastic. Chapter 5: Melody Melody - Succession of pitches that make up the “tune” in a piece of music (can be thought of as a line). - It can move in two ways: 1.) Steps- small intervals 2.) Leaps- large intervals Range - lowest pitch to the highest pitch Different styles of melody:
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1.) Legato - smooth, connected type of melody (clarinet) 2.) Staccato- short, detached style Phrase - smaller unit that helps make up a melody Cadence- an ending of some sort Sequence- repetition of a pattern at a higher or lower pitch (technique of creating a melody). Chapter 6: Harmony
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Music 300[1] - Music 300 Mark Wallace Chapter 1 Basic...

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