Ritornello Form - Lesson 8 Ritornello Form Found in FAST...

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Lesson 8 Ritornello Form Found in FAST movements of baroque concertos (1 st and 3 rd movements) Ritornello theme: recurring melodic idea played by whole orchestra Constant alternation between orchestra playing ritornello them (or part of it) and soloist playing contrasting material Example: J.S. Bach Brandenburg Concerto No. 5, I (1721) o Concerto Grosso 3 movements (only 1 st heard here) 3 soloists: violin, flute, harpsichord sometimes orchestra plays along in “solo” passages o Big harpsichord solo Unusual because harpsichord usually a supporting instrument Virtuosity (!) – very difficult to play Fugue Imitative polyphonic genre in 3 or more voices based on a single theme Great illustration of late baroque complexity and learnedness Usually preceded by an “improvisatory” piece like a prelude or a toccata (e.g. “Prelude and Fugue in C minor”) Ex.: Bach’s Well-Tempered Clavier (1722); The Art of Fugue (1748-1750) Principles of Fugue
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Ritornello Form - Lesson 8 Ritornello Form Found in FAST...

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