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Anatomy Notes #3

Anatomy Notes #3 - The Nervous System(Ch 11 Along with the...

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The Nervous System (Ch. 11) Along with the endocrine system it: Regulates functions of other body systems The means and speed of control used by these two is very different: Endocrine – influences cells by releasing hormones into the blood o Response occurs after seconds or even days Nervous – by rapid, specific electrical impulses o Response in milliseconds, almost immediate The brain does much more than regulate organ systems: Integration of senses – sight, smell, hearing, touch and taste Emotions, thought, memory, dreams Able to devise complex technology But the brain is still ignorant of its own workings 3 Very General Functions: 1. Sensory Input o It monitors changes inside and outside the body o It uses millions of sensory receptors o The changes are called stimuli o The information gathered is called sensory input 2. Integration o The sensory input is interpreted o It makes decisions about how to respond to the stimulus 3. Motor Output o Appropriate response is elicited o It activates effector organs: o Muscles and glands In addition: 4. The nervous system has the ability to: o Store experiences: memory o Learn Organization of the Nervous System 1. Central Nervous System (CNS) o The brain and spinal cord o Occupies the dorsal cavity o Within the bony cranium and vertebral column o The integrating and command center o Interprets sensory input o Issues a response 2. Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) o Everything outside of the CNS o Consists of: o Nerves Spinal – carries impulses to and from the spinal cord Cranial – carries impulse to and from the brain o Receptors Specialized cells that respond to stimuli a. Rods and cones – respond to light b. Meissner Corpuscle – discriminative touch o Has 2 different divisions a) Sensory or Afferent Division Nerve fibers that convey impulses from receptors to the CNS
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Keeps the CNS informed of everything going on inside and outside the body 2 categories of sensory fibers: 1. Somatic Afferent Carry impulses from the skin, muscles and joints 2. Visceral Afferent Carries impulses from organs of the ventral cavity b) Motor or Efferent Division Nerve fibers transmit impulses from CNS to effect organs The activate muscles and glands They bring about and effect or response 2 categories of motor fibers: 1. Somatic Nervous System Conveys impulses to skeletal muscles Allows voluntary control of skeletal muscles 2. Autonomic Nervous System Regulates events that are automatic (involuntary) Carries impulses to smooth and cardiac muscles and glands Has 2 divisions: a. Sympathetic Nervous System Activates the body to cope with emergencies Fight or flight b. Parasympathetic Nervous System Usually the opposite of sympathetic Resting and digesting nervous system Cell Structure of the Nervous System Cells are tightly packed 2 major cell types: 1. Neuroglial Cells Supportive, insulate and protect
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Anatomy Notes #3 - The Nervous System(Ch 11 Along with the...

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