Feb 9 Powerpoint

Feb 9 Powerpoint - Journalism that Changed the Journalism that Changed the World A Brief History Challenging the Status Quo… Challenging the

Info iconThis preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: Journalism that Changed the Journalism that Changed the World: A Brief History Challenging the Status Quo… Challenging the Status Quo… Joseph Pulitzer rose to purchase the struggling New York World newspaper in 1883 after many successes in St. Louis. Pulitzer used his newspapers to crusade for the rights of immigrants, the poor and the working class. Sensational headlines such as "Baptized in Blood" competed with those of the New York Journal owned by William Randolph Hearst. William Randolph Hearst William Randolph Hearst Hearst, the only son from a rich family, took control of his father's newspaper in 1887. Hearst and Pulitzer squared off when he purchased The New York Journal in 1895. Under Hearst's direction, the paper fanned the flames of war, urging it's readers to "Remember the Maine", a U.S. navy ship that exploded mysteriously in Cuba. Hearst's efforts contributed to the start of the Spanish­American War. The Rise of Yellow The Rise of Yellow Journalism The era before and during the 1900s is known as the age of yellow journalism, when sensational headlines and lurid stories were the norm. It was also a time when many determined journalists exposed corruption in government, the unfair treatment of factory workers, and the privileges of the upper class. Two trends — yellow journalism and muckraking — helped newspapers and magazines become the dominant form of mass media. The Yellow Kid… The Yellow Kid… Ida Tarbell Ida Tarbell As a teenager, Ida Tarbell witnessed first hand the efforts of the Standard Oil Company's efforts to monopolize oil production in Pennsylvania. Tarbell wrote The History of the Standard Oil Company articles in McClure's Magazine criticizing the business practices of Standard Oil and its president, John D. Rockefeller. Rockefeller responded to these attacks by describing her as "Miss Tarbarrel". Upton Sinclair Upton Sinclair "There was never the least attention paid to what was cut up for sausage; there would come all the way back from Europe old sausage that had been rejected, and that was moldy and white ­ it would be dosed with borax and glycerin, and dumped into the hoppers, and made over again for home consumption." ­­ excerpt from “The Jungle” Nellie Bly Nellie Bly A pseudonym for Elizabeth Cochrane, Nelly Bly faked her own insanity in order to go undercover in New York's insane asylum on Blackwell's Island. During her lifetime, Bly also circumnavigated the globe in 72 days, managed two multi­million dollar companies at the same time, and was the first female correspondent to cover the eastern front during World War I. The Roaring Twenties… The Roaring Twenties… The shift from print­based journalism to electronic media began in the 1920s. Competition between newspapers and radio was minimal, because the latter was not yet an effective news medium. People listened to radio bulletins, but to "read all about it" they picked up a tabloid or a broadsheet. The 1930s: Tough Times as The 1930s: Tough Times as Journalism Begins to Take Shape… Radio begins to dominate… The editorial page is born… National and international news begins to create a market for news… The Mass Media Were The Mass Media Were Coming Together… Urbanization/density Increased literacy Mass production Consumer markets Telephony/radio Automobiles The 1940s: The 1940s: Murrow and the Boys… Edward R. Murrow had a profound impact on both radio and television. His ability to paint a picture with words brought him overnight success during his radio news reports from London during World War II. Heroes Were Made… Heroes Were Made… Ernie Pyle worked as a war correspondent during World War II and accompanied Allied troops in North Africa, Italy and the Pacific. He was awarded the 1944 Pulitzer Prize for distinguished war correspondence. Pyle was known for his ability to bond with the troops and to capture the real emotions of the war. His account of the death of Captain Henry T exemplified his skills as a writer. The 1950s: The Golden Age The 1950s: The Golden Age of TV…and Print! The power of the press was growing, illustrated by Murrow’s challenge of McCarthy… Newspapers were declared as good as dead.. And Public Relations began to emerge as a profession… The 1960s: The Media The 1960s: The Media Become a Mirror… Live television New Journalism A country riven with controversy often turned to the media for understanding… A dominant broadcast media, as evidenced here. The 1970s: The 1970s: A Decade of Change The Pentagon Papers The press as an oppositional force The Supreme Court supports a fierce, questioning press… A small story in the A small story in the Washington Post… 5 Held in Plot to Bug Democrats' Office Here By Alfred E. Lewis Washington Post Staff Writer Sunday, June 18, 1972; Page A01…. A Routine Police Story? A Routine Police Story? “Five men, one of whom said he is a former employee of the Central Intelligence Agency, were arrested at 2:30 a.m. yesterday in what authorities described as an elaborate plot to bug the offices of the Democratic National Committee here. Three of the men were native­born Cubans and another was said to have trained Cuban exiles for guerrilla activity after the 1961 Bay of Pigs invasion…” Two Young Reporters Two Young Reporters Got Interested…. And a story mushroomed… And a story mushroomed… The next day, Woodward and Bernstein joined up for the first of many revelatory stories. "GOP Security Aide Among Those Arrested," reported that burglar James McCord was on the payroll of President Nixon's reelection committee. The next day, Nixon and chief of staff H.R. Haldeman privately discussed how to get the CIA to tell the FBI to back off from the burglary investigation. Publicly, a White House spokesman said he would not comment on "a third rate burglary…" …and mushroomed…. Within a few weeks, Woodward and Bernstein reported that the grand jury investigating the burglary had sought testimony from two men who had worked in the Nixon White House, former CIA officer E. Howard Hunt and former FBI agent G. Gordon Liddy. Both men would ultimately be indicted for guiding the burglars, via walkie­talkies, from a hotel room opposite the Watergate building. And, as Nixon was And, as Nixon was re­elected in a landslide… In Miami, Bernstein learned that a $25,000 check for Nixon's reelection campaign had been deposited in the bank account of one of the burglars. The resulting story, "Bug Suspect Got Campaign Funds" reported the check had been given to Maurice Stans, the former Secretary of Commerce who served as Nixon's chief fundraiser. It was the first time The Post linked the burglary to Nixon campaign funds. And finally… And finally… On August 8, 1974, Nixon announced his resignation. "By taking this action," he said in a subdued yet dramatic television address from the Oval Office, "I hope that I will have hastened the start of the process of healing which is so desperately needed in America." In a rare admission of error, Nixon said: "I deeply regret any injuries that may have been done in the course of the events that led to this decision." What Did Watergate Mean? What Did Watergate Mean? A constitutional showdown over the power of the Executive Branch The origins of the partisan split over the press, and its role An era of reform….FOIA, Special Prosecutors, the Privacy Act… Other 1970s Developments Other 1970s Developments Kent State The fall of Saigon Gonzo journalism Celebrity journalism Roe v. Wade The 1980s… The 1980s… Consolidation, fueled by deregulation… Greater specialization by magazines The birth of cable…the emergence of CNN, Fox, ESPN… The rise of market­driven journalism Market­driven journalism Market­driven journalism From mom­and­pop to public trading The commoditization of journalism Also greater professionalism, benefits But…Wall Street is a demanding boss! The 1990s The 1990s The dawning of digital content The dot com boom…and bust Money begins moving from print media to…Craigs List? Content = free… Meanwhile… Meanwhile… Some truly horrific developments, from the media performance in the Lewinsky affair, to O.J., to Columbine… The 24/7 beast is fully alive…and it must be fed! And Today…. And Today…. Total chaos! The rise of convergence, the search for revenue, the abandonment of traditional media… Where are we headed? ...
View Full Document

This note was uploaded on 11/06/2010 for the course CS 2050 taught by Professor Uhlmann during the Fall '09 term at Missouri (Mizzou).

Ask a homework question - tutors are online