UnitVIICardiovascularDrugs

UnitVIICardiovascularDrugs - Unit VII Cardiovascular Drugs...

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1 Unit VII: Cardiovascular Drugs Physiology of the Cardiovascular System Heart box3 Two-sided pump that circulates 5-6 liters of blood every minute box3 4 chambers: 2 atria and 2 ventricles box3 Endocardium lines the heart chambers, myocardium is the strong muscular layer that provides pumping power, epicardium is outer, serous layer of heart box3 Valves function to maintain one-way flow of blood box3 Conduction by special cells that carry electrical impulses: SA node, AV node, bundle of HIS, right and left bundle branches and Purkinje fibers box3 Blood supply received from coronary arteries box3 Collateral circulation may provide sufficient blood supply Blood Vessels box3 Arteries, veins and capillaries box3 Intima is inner lining composed of endothelial cells next to the blood box3 Media in middle layer of muscle and elastic tissue box3 Adventitia is outer layer of connective tissue Blood box3 Functions to nourish and oxygenate body cells, protect the body from invading microorganisms, and initiate hemostasis when a blood vessel is injured box3 Made up of plasma and solid particles (cells)
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2 Regulation of Cardiac Output Determinants of cardiac output: box3 Average adult, 5 L/min box3 Cardiac output = heart rate × stroke volume box3 Heart rate square6 Controlled by the autonomic nervous system box3 Stroke volume square6 Myocardial contractility square6 Cardiac afterload square6 Cardiac preload box3 Preload square6 End-diastolic volume or end-diastolic pressure box3 Afterload—arterial pressure Regulation of Arterial Pressure Overview of control system: box3 Arterial pressure = peripheral resistance × cardiac output box3 Arterial pressure is regulated by square6 Autonomic nervous system (ANS) square6 Renin-angiotensin system square6 Kidneys Regulation of Arterial Pressure (cont’d) box3 Steady-state control by the ANS square6 Regulates AP by adjusting cardiac output (CO) and peripheral resistance box3 Rapid control by the ANS: the baroreceptor reflex square6 Constriction of nearly all arterioles square6 Constriction of veins square6 Acceleration of heart rate Regulation of Arterial Pressure (cont’d) box3 The renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system square6 Constriction of arterioles and veins (angiotensin II) square6 Retention of water by the kidney (aldosterone) Regulation of Arterial Pressure (cont’d) box3 Renal retention of water box3 Postural hypotension (orthostatic hypotension) box3 Natriuretic peptides square6 Protect the cardiovascular system in the event of volume overload square6 Three principal members box3 Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) box3 B- or brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) box3 C-natriuretic peptide (CNP) Cardiovascular Disorders box3 Most vascular diseases result from malfunction of endothelial cells or smooth muscle cells box3 Major factor in atherosclerosis, acute coronary syndromes, hypertension, and thromboembolic disorders box3 May involve structure or function of cardiovascular system
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3 Drug Therapy in Cardiovascular Disorders box3
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