Notes - General Psychology Module 1.1 Psychology Derives...

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General Psychology Module 1.1 Psychology Derives from greek root “psyche” meaning “soul” or “mind” and logos, meaning “word” “It depends” Behavior depends on age Varies with people’s genetics, health, past experiences, and whether they are aware or asleep Behavior varies between male and female Depends on time of day, room temperature, and what was eaten Free Will vs Determinism Determinism o The idea that everything that happens has a cause or determinant, that one could observe or measure Free will o Belief that behavior is caused by a person’s independent decisions Mind-Brain Problem Philosophical question of how experience relates to the brain Dualism The mind is separate from the brain and therefore the rest of the body Monism The view that conscious experience is inseparable from the physical brain Nature-Nurture Issue Differences in behavior relate to differences in heredity and environment Service Providers to Individuals 1
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Clinical, psychologists, psychiatrists, social workers, and counseling psychologists Service Providers to Organizations Business industry and school systems Cognition Thought and knowledge Module 1.2 Wilhelm Wundt Psychologists Believed experience is partly under voluntary control Introspect To look within themselves Edward Titchener Psychology was the nature of mental experiences Structuralism An attempt to describe the structures that compose the mind William James Focused on what the mind does rather than what it is Functionalism To learn how people produce useful behaviors Psychophysical Function Mathematical description of the relationship between the physical properties of a stimulus and its perceived properties John Watson Founder of behaviorism Behaviorism Field of psychology that concentrates on observable, measurable behaviors and not on mental processes 2
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Positive Psychology Studies the predispositions and experiences that make people happy, productive, and successful Basic Research Theoretical knowledge Understand the processes of learning and memory Applied research Deals with practical problems Module 2.1 Scientific Theory Explanation or model that fits many observations and makes valid predictions Falsible Well-formed theory that is stated in such clear, precise terms that we can see what evidence would count against it Evidence against a theory Not Falsible No conceivable evidence would count against it Burden of Proof Obligation to present evidence to support one’s claim Hypothesis Clear predictive statement Hypothesis Method Results Interpretation Replicable results Those that anyone can obtain at least approximately, by following the same procedures Meta-Analysis Combines results of many studies and analyzes them as though they were all one very large study Parsimony 3
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Stinginess When given a choice among explanations that seem to fit the facts, we prefer the
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Notes - General Psychology Module 1.1 Psychology Derives...

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