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Lecture+6+-+STV%2C+SNTV%2C+_+start+of+MMS+10.19.10

# Lecture+6+-+STV%2C+SNTV%2C+_+start+of+MMS+10.19.10 - SNTV...

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1 SNTV Single nontransferable vote in multi-member districts (SNTV/MMD Where used? ) ex Japan Why “MMD” part important? If it was just sntv without mmd.. Would be same thing as plurality in a single member district How’s it work? “Single” Each voter casts one ballot for a candidate “nontransferable” Each vote stays with that candidate Different from STV “MMD”

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2 More SNTV/MMD Is this PR? No it is not because - -not intended but can be .. Not mechanism where votes and seats are intended to match
3 An Example District 1 (M = 4) Candidate A (JSP): 80,000 votes Candidate B (LDP): 19,999 Candidate C (LDP): 19,000 Candidate D (LDP): 18,500 Candidate E (JSP): 18,000 How many seats does each party win? Who wins those seats? A-D get seats- top get seats up to # of seats availble

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4 What Guarantees a Seat? Vote % needed to guarantee seat = (100/(M+1)) + 1 vote what gurantees one a seat- most def get a seat- can get one w/o though What is this equation? Droop quota This merely helps predict what you need It’s not a requirement in Japan United States Congress example: (100/[1+1]) + 1 vote = 50% + 1 vote
5 Examples M=3 25% (+ 1 vote) m+1==== 3+1/ 100 M=4 20% (+ 1 vote) M=5 16.7% (+ 1 vote) As district magnitude goes up.. Can get a seat with a small share of the vote

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6 But can win with many fewer as well! District 1 (M = 5)- can win a seat with 10%- can help individuals w/o a lot of votes geat seat Candidate A (JSP): 20,000 votes (20.9%) Candidate B (LDP): 19,999 (20.9%) Candidate C (LDP): 19,000 (19.9%) Candidate D (LDP): 18,500 (19.4%) Candidate E (JSP): 10,000 (10.5%) Candidate F (LDP): 8,000 (8.4%)
7 Effects of SNTV/MMD Party Fragmentation Why? Small share of the vote and still get a seat, say you are a small party contesting a election.. 5 seat district, can run and still get a seat– others have to make an alliance– get parties converging together and creating a new party Intraparty competition Why ? 130 districts m=500, say big party and want to get majority of seats, have to win a least two seats per district. Need 251 to get majority. Have to run more than 2 in every distict– end up competing with one another . Competition is witin parties Factions- biggest party in japan.. Broken up– factions that divide up the party Emphasis on candidate rather than party Why?

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