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End of Lecture 14 - End of Lecture 14 Study Guide...

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End of Lecture 14 Study Guide Introduction • It was the discovery of the Galilean Moons - the larger satellites orbiting Juipter - which inevitably led astonomers/scientists to the clear understanding of a heliocentric (rather than geocentric) Solar System Regular satellites : Io, Europa, Ganymede, Callisto (The Galiliean Moons): in stable circular orbits on roughly Jupiters equatorial plane; probably formed at same time/out of same material as Jupiter. All 4 are tidally locked to Jupiter (same side always faces Jupiter). Irregular satellites : unknown origins (may be captured asteroid or captured chunks of comets, or...?); many appear to be collisional fragments (thus travel together as 'family'); orbits may be anything from circular and in equatorial plane to any elliptical track and any tilt; may have direct (orbit same direction as Jupiter) or retrograde (orbit opposite direction to Jupiter) Trojan satellites : groups of asteroid-like objects that travel about 60o ahead and 60o behind Jupiter along its orbital plane (we'll see in the next chapter about asteroids, these positions are called the Lagrangian Points); what's really weird is that, although called satellites, they don't orbit Jupiter but stay within the same orbit as Jupiter. NOTE: Earth has one Trojan satellite: 2002 AA29. Callisto • Outermost of Galilean Moons. About 1.5 times diameter of Moon. • Mix of rock and ice, but never fully differentiated, so surface is still a dusty, dirty mix of ice with a little rock (some added by impacts) • Heavily marked by craters • Apparently has a layer of water beneath the icy surface; heat to keep water liquid provided by radioactive decay from material in the rock material plus some tidal 'reworking' by the bulk of Jupiter Ganymede • Next inward from Callisto; largest (about 3/4 size of Mars) • Differentiated so it has a distinct rocky core, ice/water mantle, surface of ice.
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