Parallel Processing

Parallel Processing - William Stallings Computer...

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William Stallings Computer Organization and Architecture 8 th Edition Chapter 17 Parallel Processing
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Multiple Processor Organization Single instruction, single data stream - SISD Single instruction, multiple data stream - SIMD Multiple instruction, single data stream - MISD Multiple instruction, multiple data stream- MIMD
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Single Instruction, Single Data Stream - SISD Single processor Single instruction stream Data stored in single memory Uni-processor very first computers were like this
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Single Instruction, Multiple Data Stream - SIMD Single machine instruction Controls simultaneous execution Number of processing elements Lockstep basis Each processing element has associated data memory Each instruction executed on different set of data by different processors Vector and array processors
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Multiple Instruction, Single Data Stream - MISD Sequence of data Transmitted to set of processors Each processor executes different instruction sequence “Never been implemented”… …well, not really (NSA crypto work)
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Multiple Instruction, Multiple Data Stream- MIMD Set of processors Simultaneously execute different instruction sequences Different sets of data SMPs, clusters and NUMA systems
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Taxonomy of Parallel Processor Architectures
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MIMD - Overview General purpose processors Each can process all instructions necessary Further classified by method of processor communication
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Tightly Coupled - SMP Processors share memory Communicate via that shared memory Symmetric Multiprocessor (SMP) All processors are identical Share single memory or pool Shared bus to access memory Memory access time to given area of memory is approximately the same for each processor What would Asymmetric Multiprocessing mean?
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Tightly Coupled - SMP Processors share memory Communicate via that shared memory Symmetric Multiprocessor (SMP) All processors (or cores) are identical Share single memory or pool Shared bus to access memory Memory access time to given area of memory is approximately the same for each processor What would Asymmetric Multiprocessing mean? old designs: master processor = bottleneck new designs: differential functions
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Tightly Coupled - NUMA Nonuniform memory access Access times to different regions of memory may differ APIs needed to allocate memory requests efficiently for example, Oracle/Solaris MPO (Memory Placement Option): requested memory close to processor that thread is running on; can yield 5-10% performance improvement
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Symmetric Multiprocessors A stand alone computer with the following characteristics Two or more similar processors of comparable capacity Processors share same memory and I/O Processors are connected by a bus or other internal connection Memory access time is approximately the same for each processor All processors share access to I/O
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This note was uploaded on 11/01/2010 for the course INFS 515 taught by Professor Masiyowski,j during the Fall '08 term at George Mason.

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Parallel Processing - William Stallings Computer...

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