Review Questions 6-7 F10

Review Questions 6-7 F10 - nd law of thermodynamics) is...

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EXB 101 Lectures #6-7: Bioenergetics and Metabolic Control Facts 1. Name the two laws of thermodynamics. 2. What is physiological work? 3. How do biological systems maintain order? 4. What is the Gibbs Free Energy? 5. Why are enzymes important in biological systems? How do enzymes alter the rate of a reaction? 6. What factors affect the rate of enzyme reactions? 7. What are allosteric modifiers? True or False: Allosteric activators of enzymes function by increasing the maximal reaction rate (Vmax)? 8. What are the differences between allosteric modifiers and cofactors? 9. How does the concentration of a substrate affect the rate of a reaction? 10. How can the body increase the Vmax of a reaction? 11. If endergonic reaction do not run spontaneously, and often create products of higher order and less entropy than the substrates, how do biological systems get these important reactions to occur? 12. True or False: One unavoidable drawback of all reactions (due to the 2
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Unformatted text preview: nd law of thermodynamics) is that some of the energy is not harvested to perform physiological work, but is lost to heat. 13. Of the two metabolic processes, anabolism and catabolism ; which process is exergonic and which one is endergonic? 14. In the reaction: Lactate + NAD Pyruvate + NADH+ H: Identify the oxidized and reduced compounds on each side of the equation. 15. What are the three main macronutrients broken down by the body for bioenergy? 16. What is the energy content (Kcals/gram) of each of these nutrients? 20. What is the neurotransmitter released by the sympathetic nervous system (SNS)? Name an endocrine gland that also releases this compound. 21. How do most steroid hormones alter cell function? 22. How do most non-steroidal hormones alter cell function? 23. Describe how insulin and glucagon maintain blood glucose levels? 24. Name 5 ways that the body alters metabolism during exercise?...
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