Alcohols - Alcohols R-O-H Classification CH3, 1o, 2o, 3o...

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Alcohols R-O-H Classification CH 3 , 1 o , 2 o , 3 o Nomenclature: Common names : “alkyl alcohol” IUPAC : parent = longest continuous carbon chain containing the –OH group. alkane drop -e, add –ol prefix locant for –OH ( lower number for OH )
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CH 3 CH 3 CH 3 CHCH 2 CHCH 3 CH 3 CCH 3 OH OH 4-methyl-2-pentanol tert -butyl alcohol 2-methyl-2-propanol 2 o 3 o CH 3 HO-CHCH 2 CH 3 CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 -OH sec -butyl alcohol n -propyl alcohol 2-butanol 1-propanol 2 o 1 o
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Physical properties of alcohols: polar + hydrogen bonding relatively higher mp/bp water insoluble ! (except for alcohols of three carbons or less) CH 3 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 CH 2 -OH hydrophobic hydrophilic
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Oldest known organic synthesis: “fermentation” Sugar + yeast ethyl alcohol + CO 2 Grape juice => “wine” Barley => “beer” Honey => “mead” Rice => “sake” ~5-11% ethanol
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Alcohols, synthesis: 1. 2. 3. 4. Hydrolysis of alkyl halides ( CH 3 or 1 o ) 5. 6. 7. 8.
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NR NR NR some NR NR NR 1 o /2 o NR NR NR NR NR R-H R-X R-OH Acids Bases Active metals Oxidation Reduction Halogens
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Alcohols, reactions : R-|-OH 1. With HX 2. With PX 3 3. ( later ) RO-|-H 1. As acids 2. Ester formation 3. Oxidation
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Reaction of alcohols with HX : (#1 synthesis of RX) R-OH + HX R-X + H 2 O a) HX: HI > HBr > HCl b)
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This note was uploaded on 11/02/2010 for the course CHEM 51LA taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '03 term at UC Irvine.

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Alcohols - Alcohols R-O-H Classification CH3, 1o, 2o, 3o...

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